The nervous system

The function of this system

The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. Together, these organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts.

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Central Nervous System

The brain and spinal cord together form the central nervous system, or CNS. The CNS acts as the control center of the body by providing its processing, memory, and regulation systems. The CNS takes in all of the conscious and subconscious sensory information from the body’s sensory receptors to stay aware of the body’s internal and external conditions. Using this sensory information, it makes decisions about both conscious and subconscious actions to take to maintain the body’s homeostasis and ensure its survival. The CNS is also responsible for the higher functions of the nervous system such as language, creativity, expression, emotions, and personality. The brain is the seat of consciousness and determines who we are as individuals.

Peripheral Nervous System

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes all of the parts of the nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. These parts include all of the cranial and spinal nerves, ganglia, and sensory receptors.

the functions of the major regions of the cerebral hemispheres


The diencephalon- along with the telencephalon (cerebrum) comprise the two major divisions of the prosencephalon (forebrain). Main structures of the diencephalon include the hypothalamus, thalamus, epithalamus (including the pineal gland), and subthalamus. The diencephalon relays sensory information between brain regions and controls many autonomic functions of the peripheral nervous system



The brain stem- houses the midbrain (mesencephalon), pons (part of the metencephalon), and medulla oblongata (myelencephalon). This is the posterior area of the brain that attaches to the spinal cord. It's here, at the brain stem, where information is sent back and forth between the cerebrum or cerebellum and the body



The cerebellum- is a rounded structure located behind the brain stem, to which it is linked by thick nerve tracts. It accounts for about 11% of the whole brain weight and appears similar to the cerebrum (the main mass of the brain). It is concerned mainly with the maintenance of posture and balance and the coordination of movement.

2 major disorders that occur within this system

Epilepsy- Epilepsy is a group of related disorders characterized by a tendency for recurrent seizures. There are different types of epilepsy and seizures. Epilepsy drugs are prescribed to control seizures, and rarely surgery is necessary if medications are ineffective.


Strokes- Stroke is caused by a blocked blood vessel or bleeding in the brain. The signs of a stroke include a sudden severe headache, weakness, numbness, vision problems, confusion, trouble walking or talking, dizziness and slurred speech.

the structure of a motor neuron.

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simple reflex arc

A reflex arc defines the pathway by which a reflex travels, from the stimulus to sensory neuron to motor neuron to reflex muscle movement.

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