Computing Hardware

The History

Tim Berners Lee

Tim Berners Lee invented the world wide web in 1989. he was born on the 8th June in 1955. in 2004 he was knighted by queen Elizabeth 2nd. His name is also known as sir timothy Berners Lee

first generation of computers

The first generation of computers often took up a whole room just to keep them. The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums as memory.

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second generation of computers

Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but we did not see wide spread in computers until the late 1950s
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the third gen

transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips and were called semiconductors

the fourth gen

the intel 4004 chip developed in 1971 located all of the components of computers

the fifth gen

the fifth gen uses parallel processing and superconductors are helping to make artificial intelligence a realty

The difference between ram and rom

ROM is memory that cannot be changed by a program or user. ROM retains its memory even after the computer is turned off. For example, ROM stores the instructions for the computer to start up when it is turned on again.

RAM is a fast temporary type of memory in which programs, applications and data are stored. Here are some examples of what's stored in RAM:

  • the operating system
  • applications
  • the graphical user interface (GUI)

If a computer loses power, all data stored in its RAM is lost.


A drive is a medium that is capable of storing and reading information that is not easily removed like a disk. The picture is an example of different drives listed in Microsoft Windows My Computer.

Computer monitors

A monitor or a display is an electronic visual display for computers. The monitor comprises the display device, circuitry and an enclosure. The display device in modern monitors is typically a thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) thin panel, while older monitors used a cathode ray tube (CRT) about as deep as the screen size

computer cpu's

A central processing unit is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output operations specified by the instructions. The term has been used in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s. Traditionally, the term CPU refers to a processor and its control unit distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry


Alternatively referred to as the mb, mainboard, mobo, mobd, backplane board, base board, main circuit board, planar board, system board, or a logic board on Apple computers. The motherboard is a printed circuit board that is the foundation of a computer, located at the bottom of the computer case. It allocates power to the CPU, RAM, and all other computer hardware components. Most importantly, the motherboard allows hardware components to communicate with one another.

inputs and outputs

An input is data that a computer receives. An output is data that a computer sends.

Computers only work with digital information. Any input that a computer receives must be digitised.

Often data has to be converted back to an analogue format when it's output, for example the sound from a computer's speakers.

Touch screens

A touchscreen is an input device normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of a information processing system. A user can give input or control the information processing system through simple or multi-touch gestures by touching the screen with a special stylus/pen and-or one or more fingers. Some touchscreens use an ordinary or specially coated gloves to work while others use a special stylus/pen only. The user can use the touchscreen to react to what is displayed and to control how it is displayed (for example by zooming the text size).

The touchscreen enables the user to interact directly with what is displayed, rather than using a mouse, touchpad, or any other intermediate device (other than a stylus, which is optional for most modern touchscreens).

Touchscreens are common in devices such as game consoles, personal computers, tablet computers, and smartphones. They can also be attached to computers or, as terminals, to networks. They also play a prominent role in the design of digital appliances such as personal digital assistants (PDAs), GPS navigation devices, mobile phones, and video games and some books (E-books).

The popularity of smartphones, tablets, and many types of information appliances is driving the demand and acceptance of common touchscreens for portable and functional electronics. Touchscreens are found in the medical field and in heavy industry, as well as for automated teller machines (ATMs), and kiosks such as museum displays or room automation, where keyboard and mouse systems do not allow a suitably intuitive, rapid, or accurate interaction by the user with the display's content.

Historically, the touchscreen sensor and its accompanying controller-based firmware have been made available by a wide array of after-market system integrators, and not by display, chip, or motherboard manufacturers. Display manufacturers and chip manufacturers worldwide have acknowledged the trend toward acceptance of touchscreens as a highly desirable user interface component and have begun to integrate touchscreens into the fundamental design of their products.

Raspberry Pi

The Raspberry Pi is a low cost, credit-card sized computer that plugs into a computer monitor or TV, and uses a standard keyboard and mouse. It is a capable little device that enables people of all ages to explore computing, and to learn how to program in languages like Scratch and Python. It’s capable of doing everything you’d expect a desktop computer to do, from browsing the internet and playing high-definition video, to making spreadsheets, word-processing, and playing games.

What’s more, the Raspberry Pi has the ability to interact with the outside world, and has been used in a wide array of digital maker projects, from music machines and parent detectors to weather stations and tweeting birdhouses with infra-red cameras. We want to see the Raspberry Pi being used by kids all over the world to learn to program and understand how computers work.


The info is gooooooooooooood but one has been pasted :/

Info link is good

the grammar is good

and literacy is good

It is eye catching