The Planet Venus

by: Neha, Natasha, and Sierra

Venus

Venus is a rocky inner planet. Other names for Venus is "morning star" and "evening star". Venus is named after the roman god of love and beauty, because it is the brightest thing in the night sky. Now we know that Venus is anything but beautiful. Venus is covered with thick fast-moving sulphuric acid clouds. Lightning flickers between the clouds. Venus also contains other poisonous compounds. That is why its features are only visible using radar images. Venus is the hottest planet in the Solar System. Venus has no moons and no rings. Venus is the second planet from the sun. It is 67.6 million miles (108.9 million km) away from the sun. It is the fourth smallest or sixth biggest planet in the solar system. Venus is 7,520 miles (12,104 km) in diameter. Venus and Earth are truly twin separated at birth. They are called the sister planets. Venus’ surface temperature is 882 degrees Fahrenheit (472 degrees Celsius). The surface gravity on Venus is 29.1-feet/ s2 . The average temperature is 864 degrees ferenhiet. If you weighed 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 91 pounds on Venus. A day on Venus is 243 Earth days. A year on Venus is 224.7 Earth days. The planet takes longer to spin on its axis than it does to orbit the sun. The tilt of Venus' axis 177.3 degrees. The composition of Venus’ atmosphere is 96.5% carbon dioxide and because, Venus rotates too slowly to generate the type of magnetic field that Earth has.Venus is possibly the most unpleasant place in the Solar System. Venus also has an iron core about 1,200 miles (3,000 kilometers) in radius. Its core iron content is similar to that of Earth.


Venus' Volcanoes

Venus' volcanoes create some interesting shapes that have not been seen on other planets. Arachnoids may have been formed by molten rock that bulged underground then cooled and shrank. Circular rings or cracks sometimes surrounded by a depression are called coronae. Pancake domes, or Farra, are flat-topped volcanoes that rise several thousands of feet in the air. They were made when lava spread out in a circle then cooled. When ever volcanoes spew lava and bulges of magma ooze through the crust, the surface of Venus tends to lose the signs of its history. Lava smoothes out the surface. It fills ancient craters and gashes left by billions of years of colliding meteorites. Scientists call this process "repaving the surface". The oldest surface feature on Venus is over 800 million years old. Scientists believe that volcanic activity caused lava to flow over the surface and fill in any craters formed before this time.


Missions to Venus

The United States, Soviet Union, and European Space Agency have sent many spacecraft to Venus. Some flew by the planet, some orbited it, some descended through the atmosphere and struck the surface (hard-landed), and a few soft-landed on the surface.

Spacecraft_______________Launch Date_______________Type of Mission

Mariner 2________________1962_______________________ Flyby; first to fly by Venus


Venera 4_________________1967 Hard-lander; first to descend through atmosphere



Mariner 5________________1967________________________Flyby



Venera 5_________________1969________________________Hard-lander


Venera 6_________________1969________________________Hard-lander


Venera 7_________________1970__________________Soft-lander; first to soft land on surface


Venera 8_________________1972________________________Soft-lander


Mariner 10_______________1973________________________Flyby en route to Mercury


Venera 9_________________1975___Orbiter, soft-lander; first to return photos of surface


Venera 10________________1975________________________Orbiter, soft-lander


Pioneer-Venus___________1978________Orbiter with radar altimeter; first detailed radar mapping of surface


Pioneer-Venus 2_________1978________________________Four hard-landers


Venera 11_________________1978_______________________Flyby, soft-lander


Venera 12_________________1978_______________________Flyby, soft-lander


Venera 13_________________1981__________Orbiter, soft-lander; first color images of surface


Venera 14_________________1981_______________________

Orbiter, soft-lander



Venera 15_________________1983_______________________Orbiter with radar mapper


Venera 16_________________1983_______________________Orbiter with radar mapper


Vega 1_____________________1984_______________________Flyby, atmospheric balloon probe


Vega 2_____________________1984_______________________Flyby, atmospheric balloon probe


Magellan__________________1989____Orbiter with radar mapper; first high-resolution global map of Venus


Venus Express ___________2005_______________Orbiter studying the atmosphere, plasma environment, and surface of Venus