Mining and Fracking

By Andrew Powlen Chris Mitchell

There are two types of mining, Surface and Subsurface.

Surface Mining

What is surface mining? Surface mining is mining on the surface in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit are removed.

Examples of this are: strip mining, open pit mining, and mountain top removal mining.

Strip mining is when earth, rock, and other materials is dug into or removed to extract minerals, mostly coal.

Open pit mining is when minerals are removed from a open pit or borrow.

Mountain top removal mining is when coal is extracted from a mountain top by removing the land.

Surface mining destroys habitats, erodes soil, pollutes air though dust particles, and pollutes the air through sediments.

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Subsurface Mining

What is subsurface mining? Subsurface mining is the extraction of minerals and ores from underground.

Examples of this are: slope, drift, and shaft mining.

Slope mining is where a access shaft that's sloped at a angle leads towards desired material, which is removed from the shaft.

Drift mining is meaning a near-horizontal passageway in a mine, following the bed, or vein ore.

Shaft mining is excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down, where there is initially no access to the bottom.

Subsurface mining releases hazardous acids and gases which put the mine workers in dangerous work conditions.

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The difference of Subsurface and Surface mining.

Surface mining is a lot safer than Subsurface mining, but it also creates a bigger ecological effect in a bad way. Surface mining destroys habitats, erodes soil, pollutes air though dust particles, and pollutes the air through sediments. While subsurface mining just creates a lot of hazardous acid mine drainage.

Fracking

Fracking is the process of injecting liquid at high pressure into subterranean rocks, boreholes so as to force open existing fissures and extract oil or gas. Fracking effects the environment by contaminating ground water that can cause sensory, respiratory, or neurological damage. It also releases gases into the air that can cause contaminated air, acid rain, and ground level ozone.
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