Society During The Englightenment

By Molly Hynes

Music

Music during this time was mostly baroque. A lot of the most profoundly known composers of all time where alive and composing gi this time period. Three of the most prestigious are described below.

Johann Sebastian Bach

  • born on March 31, 1685 in Eisenach Thuringia Germany
  • Most well known for composing "Toccata and Fugue in D Minor"
George Frideric Handel

George Frideric Handel

  • born on February 23 1685 in Halle, Germany
  • Most well known for composing "Messian"

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

  • born on January 27, 1756
  • Most well known for composing Eine Kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music, 1787) and the opera Le Nozze di Figaro (The Marriage of Figaro, 1786), Don Giovanni (1787) and Die Zauberflote (The Magic Flute, 1791)

Art

  • very complex works
  • peaked in 1590-1720
  • embraced painting, sculpting, and architecture
  • After the idealism of the Renaissance and Mannerism Baroque art reflected more on the religious issues of the time
  • lots of different pieces were highlighted in many Royal Churches

Gian Lorenzo Bernini

One of the most famous sculpor archetects of this time he designed both the baldachin with spiral columns above the altar of St. Peter’s in Rome and the vast colonnade fronting that church.

Painters

Baroque style of painting arose in Rome in the 1620s and culminated in the monumental painted ceilings and other church decorations of Pietro da Cortona, Guido Reni, Il Guercino, Domenichino, and countless lesser artists

Rococo

An artistic movement that was a later version of Baroque in Central Europe. This style was mainly focused on asymmetrical patterns involving motifs and scroll work.

Decorative Art Style

  • King Louis XIV's Versailles court, rococo was closely associated with Madame de Pompadour
  • A whimsical and decorative style of art,
  • the term rococo applies to all art form
  1. architecture
  2. interior design
  3. painting
  4. sculpture
  5. furniture
  6. textile fabrics
  7. porcelain and other precious objects

Architectural Style

  • Rococo architecture was exemplified above all by French architects
  • Nicolas Pineau and Jules-Hardouin Mansart (1646-1708) he designed interiors for the royal Château de Marly, and by Jean Courtonne and Germain Boffrand
  • Some of the most famous buildings from this time
  1. Walpole's Strawberry Hill, Twickenham, built from 1748 and on
  2. Arbury, Warwickshire, built from 1748 and on
More of a symbal of this time rather then a direct relationship to the rocialle

Peasant Life

An agricultural worker who generally owns a small plot of land. When the industrial revolution was taking place in Europe, about 1780, the peasants where forced to switch from working in the fields and go to cities. Bringing great stress to the low income working class, with he considerably higher work load. There was no time for entertainment with these harsh schedules. Religion although was a huge part of their society and valued greatly.

Classes

they had three classes


  1. slave
  2. serf
  • serfdom was abolished in Russia in 1860
"from 45-50 percent at the end of the eighteenth century, to 37.7 percent in 1858.(Pipes)"
3. free tenant

Clothing


      • Because they were poor, their clothing was usually rough wool or linen. The women wove the fabric and made the clothes. Peasants generally had only one set of clothing and it almost never was washed.

      • tunics and long stockings were worn by men.

      • long dresses and stockings made of wool were worn by women

      • Some peasants wore underwear made of linen, that was washed “regularly.”

      • most common colors for peasant clothing were brown, red or gray.

      • Both men and women wore clogs made of thick leather.

      • In cold weather, both men and women wore cloaks made of sheepskin or wool. They also wore wool hats and mittens.

      • Children dressed in the same style as the adults.

Food

  • mostly lived off the land
  • diets consisted of porridge, bread, vegetables, and some meat
  • their main crops consisted of cor, wheat, and beans
  • some peasant families were rich enough to have goats, or a cows and had access to dairy products this was
  • out side of some peasants houses were fruit and or nut trees
  • in the gardens out side their houses lettuce, carrots, radishes, beets, and other vegetables also grew
  • if the weather was bad and the cops were bad the peasants would starve to death

Citations

Biography.com Editors. "George Handel Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n/a. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.

Biography.com Editors. "Johann Sebastian Bach Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n/a. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.

Biography.com Editors. "Wolfgang Mozart Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n/a. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.

Editors. "Baroque Period | Art." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.

"The Middle Ages | Feudalism." The Middle Ages | Feudalism. Ed. Western Reserve Public Medis. Western Reserve Public Medis, 2008. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.

N/a. "The Peasants - 18th Century Society." The Peasants - 18th Century Society. N/a, 2011. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.