Causes of the American Revolution
Causes of the American Revolution
The American Revolution was a war caused by frustrations between the 13 colonies and Great Britain. Some of the social causes were The Boston Massacre which resulted in five deaths, Navigation Acts putting the theory of merchantilism into practice, and the results of many other acts caused the colonists to start boycotting and protesting. The British placed the acts, Quartering Act, The Stamp Act, Tea Act and The Boston Tea Party, Coercive Act, and the Townshend Act. I think the colonists felt strongly about all the taxes and acts put on them by Britain. The colonists were constantly in ferment with Britain, so I think that they were justified on getting their independence.
The purpose of the Navigation Acts was to put the theory of mercantilism into practice. Two rules the colonists had to follow were; trade was only to be conducted with English or colonial ships.The second, certain items could only be shipped within the empire. The Sugar Act was an importation law. It forced colonists to buy more costly rum from the Britain West Indies. The most significant impact was the stifling of colonial manufacturing and increasing resentment of the mother country.
The Proclamation of 1763
The Proclamation of 1763 was created after The French and Indian war. King George issued The Proclamation of 1763 because he didn't want to pay for another costly war. Since the natives were living among the land west of the Appalachians, the colonists most likely would of had a run in with them causing another war. Colonists grew angry because they wanted to settle the land, and not among the British. Many colonists disregarded The Proclamation of 1763 due to it being hard to enforce.
The Stamp Act
The Stamp Act taxed all paper items and anything printed on paper. The Stamp Act was created as another way to raise funds in order to pay for The French and Indian War. The Committees of Correspondence protested by boycotting certain goods within the colonies. Samuel Adams helped create the Sons of Liberty. The purpose of this organization was to protest British policies. During the Stamp Act Congress mostly taxes were discussed.
In response to the Stamp Act protests, Britain sent even more troops to keep order in the colonies. The Quartering Act required colonists to house and feed the British soldiers. Two major issues the colonists had with this act was, first of all, they didn't like having British soldiers living in their homes. Secondly, housing and feeding the soldiers was a costly ordeal. The Writs of Assistance was a system of, what we call today, search warrants. Which means that if an authority figure has probable cause to search your home, they can get a warrant signed by a judge in order to enter your home. This goes without your permission or not.
Some of the items that were taxed during the Townshend Acts were; tea, glass, and paper. The Daughters of Liberty responded to this act by making their own cloth instead of purchasing it. After the Townshend Acts were repealed the British Government continued to tax tea. The Sons of Liberty, led by Samuel Adams used violence and attacked the homes of British officials and tax collectors as a response to the continuous taxation.
On March 5, 1770, a crowd of colonists gathered around a colonist and British soldier arguing. Colonists began rioting and protesting as a crowd. As the intensity of the mob grew, the British soldiers took things into their own hands and fired their guns into the crowd of colonists. The shootings led to five deaths that day, the first being Crispus Attucks. Samuel Adams used the terrible incident for propaganda purposes. John Adams, Samuel Adams cousin, represented the soldiers to demonstrate the value of the right to have a trial by jury.
Tea Act & Boston Tea Party
The Tea Act made the British East India company strictly the only company allowed to sell tea. Colonists were still unhappy with this act, even though it made tea prices much lower, because they still had to pay taxes for importation to Britain. The Sons of Liberty wanted to show the British how they felt about this act with a physical action instead of a protest. So, the Sons of Liberty disguised as Indians and dumped 342 crates of British tea into the Boston Harbor.
The colonists called the Coercive Act the Intolerable Acts. The four laws that were enforced during this act were; stopping all trade between Boston and Britain, allowed zero town meetings, gave Britain control, and strengthened the Quartering Act. The colonies were angered by this act because when the British stopped trade, it stopped trade in other colonies as well. Due to this, revolutionary spirits stirred throughout other colonies. This act just added to the already present anger towards the British.