The history of computers

Tim Burners-lee

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Timothy John Berners-Lee
(1955-06-08) 8 June 1955 (age 59)
London, England

OccupationComputer scientist


  • World Wide Web Consortium
  • University of Southampton
  • Plessey
  • MIT


Spouse(s)Rosemary Leith


Conway Berners-Lee

Mary lee woods

best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web. He made a proposal for an information management system in March 1989


First Generation - 1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes
  • The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. First generation computers relied on machine language to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts.

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Second Generation - 1956-1963: Transistors

Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 50s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficientand more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.

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Third Generation - 1964-1971: Integrated Circuits

Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers hrough keyboard and monitors and interfaced with an operating sysem which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.

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Fourth Generation - 1971-Present: Microprocessors

Themicroprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the firstgeneration filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer - from The CPU memory to input/output controls - on a singlechip.

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Inputs and Outputs

Inputs and out puts

. key bored

. mouse

. monitor

. hard drive

. mother board

. hard drive

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