Chemistry of Life
Study Guide- Ashley Blair
Water and It's Characteristics:
Cohesion - The molecular attraction that holds together the surface of the same substances.
Heat Storage -absorbs and stores heat energy that is released in water to transfer when needed.
pH scale - a measure of how acidic or basic a substance is.
Polarity of Water - water is a polar molecule, meaning that there is an uneven distribution of electron density. Water has a partial negative charge near the oxygen atom due to the unshared pairs of electrons, and partial positive charges near the hydrogen atoms.
- Lipids - (Unsaturated fats, saturated fats) Stores energy; Found in the cell
- Carbohydrates - (Monosaccharide, Disaccharide, Polysaccharide) Breaks down energy; Found in DNA
- Proteins - (Globular, Fibrous, Membrane) Regulates the body; Found all over the body nd in foods.
- Nucleic Acids - (DNA, RNA) Makes up genetic information; Found in DNA molecules.
- Organic compounds mad of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen.
- key source of energy found in most foods.
- Regulates protein-cell interactions.
- Defends against invading viruses and bacteria.
- Monosaccharides (also a monomer) - basic source of energy for cells.
- Ex: Glucose, Fructose
- Disaccharide - a chain of two monosaccharides linked together by a covalent bond.
- Needs to be digested by the human body to be used in cells
-Ex: Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose
- Oligosaccharides - Carbohydrate structures that contain more than 2 but less than 20 monosaccharide units.
- Mannose - oligosaccharides cover the head of H.I.V. Mannose shields the virus from possible treatment by blocking entry.
- Polysaccharide - a chain of 3 or more monosaccharides.
- Can be very large; is a macromolecule
- Stores plant energy; needs to be digested by the human body
- Ex: Starches, Cellulose, Chitin
- Makes up cell membranes
- Long term energy
- Saturated Fats - long chains of carbons with oil bonds filled by hydrogens.
- Solid at room temperature.
- Unsaturated Fats - have one double bond (mono) which causes a "kink" in the chain that does not allow the fat to solidify.
- Polyunsaturated Fats - have more than one double bond in the chains
- Triglycerol is hydrolized in the small intestine by lipase into fatty acids, glycerol, and water.
- DNA/RNA - Carry our genetic information and care for amino acids.
- ATP (Adenosine Phosphate) - molecular currency of energy in cells; Phosphate bonds contain a lot of potential energy that is released when they are broken.
- Forms our hair and fingernails
- Carries oxygen throughout the body
- Enables muscular movement
- Defends body against invaders
- Helps us digest
- Amino acids - building blocks of protein in the body for the cells.
- Fibroin - (Found in spider silk)
- Luciferase - (Found in fireflies)
- Prialt - (found in cobras)
- GFP - (Jellyfish)
- Alpha-Keritan - (Found in horns, feathers, nails)