Unit 15 - P3
The Principles of a Safe and Effective Exercise Session
Warm up and cool down
Before you are allowed to deliver a structured exercise session you must demonstrate that you know both the function and components of warming up and cooling down. The Manager has requested that with the support of your colleague you are to lead a short warm up and cool down for a small group. Explaining what you are doing and why you are doing it as you go along. You must provide a document to support your session detailing the activities and their purpose. It should include the following:
- The function of a warm up and how it will be achieved through pulse raising or stretching activities.
- The different techniques you will be using to warm-up e.g. specific (aerobic routines) and/or general (low repetitions on resistance machines)
- The duration of the activities.
- The function of a cool down and its components including lowering of the pulse and stretches, e.g. developmental, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation PNF.
- Warm up the muscles in the body so they become relaxed.
- improve your flexibility, so you don't cause an muscle injury in the main exersize, so dynamic and static stretching should be used.
- Increase your blood flow through the active tissues to increase your metabolism and muscle temperatures.
- to warm up your body temperature
- to increase your heart rate, so your prepared for the main session.
Stage 1 - Light jogging
Stage 2 - Stretching
Stage 3 - Specific skill warm up
Stage 1 - This is when your jogging or slow running, you do this because you need to get the pulse raising, increasing your heart rate and raising your body temperature to be warm.
Stage 2 - After you started your light jogging and your warmed up you need to start stretching, this could either be dynamic or static but for a warm up it would more suitable to do dynamic because your stretching while moving. This is important in a warm up because allows easier movement, increase your joint flexibility and its stretching the muscle to prevent any injuries. its important to stretch on what main muscles your going to work so in football you would stretch your legs, so your groins, hamstrings, calf's and quadriceps and make sure you hold these for 10-20 seconds.
Stage 3 - After you finished stretching you Introduce a specific warm up session which is related to the activity/skill which you are going to work on. Example of this could be in football, your working on passing in your session, so in the warm up you can get the players in a square doing light jogging and giving them a ball and there passing the ball to each other around the square to get used to the practice before you start the main session.
The duration of your warm up should consists of 10-15 minutes.
- To Decrease the chance of Delay Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)
- so if you decrease the DOMS you also;
- Reduce muscle aching
- Decrease the chance of getting muscle stiffness and pain the next day.
- Remove all of the lactic acid it will decrease the chance of any dizziness after exersize.
- Reduce the chance of any muscle swelling, and loose your range of motion (Flexibility).
- Also Reduce yourself from loosing any muscle strength
Components of a cool down is;
To lower the pulse rate so after your main session you have used all of your major muscles, you will need to gradually lower the heart rate, this could take around 5 minutes, example in football is after the match its best to do a light jog around the pitch.
Another part of the cool down is stretching because after you have lowered your pulse rate you need to stretch the muscle to remove all the waste products and prevents you from cramp. To progress your stretching you can include development stretching, which is if you want to stretch it more than other muscle because you fell its more tight than others. This includes holding a working muscle for around 10 seconds until you feel the muscle has relaxed and repeat this 3 times.
Another effective method which you can use in your cool down is PNF (Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) this to improve their flexibility and muscular strength. This is part of static stretching but you are working in pairs to do this activity. You would want to stretch the muscle until you feel slight discomfort and you will want to push the muscle against your partner while their holding it. This should be used 2-3 times a week.
Duration of a cool down should be between 5-10 minutes.