King William of Arc

King John, William Conqueror, and Joan of Arc

King John

Biographical Information

John was born to Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine on December 24, 1166 at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, England. After having two wives, fathering six children, and accepting the Magna Carta, a document that will change England forever, he dies on October 19, 1216 in Newark-on-Trent, England.

Memorable Moments

  • Was nicknamed "John Lackland" due to his lack of land when his fathers reign was split up.
  • King John was thought of to have been guilty of his nephew's death, and being known to be selfish and cruel, many believed this to be true.


In 1215 in Runnymede, a group of nobles joined together against King John and demand of him that he accept the Magna Carta, a document known as the Great Charter. This document changed the idea of a Monarchy, it forced the King to obey the same laws as his subjects and he can no longer tax them or take their property without consent or payment. However, John received approval from the Pope, later in time, to break his word on the document seeing as he claimed that he had signed the document under a threat.

William Conqueror

Biographical Information

He was born William I in 1027 in Falaise, Normandy. He inherited his father's position as Duke of Normandy when his father passed, however, he soon overran England and became the King of England also. Once Duke William of Normandy, he changed his name to William Conqueror after he conquered the Anglo-Saxons and England. He later died on September 9, 1087 in Rouen, Normandy.

Memorable Moments

  • William Conqueror was the first Norman King of England.
  • William defeated the King Harold in the Battle of Hastings.
  • He established a central tax system.


William Conqueror helped to established feudalism in Europe. Europe had no central government and was constantly being attacked by barbarians, so feudalism played a key role in protecting the kingdom. Feudalism was a system of loyalty. Without feudalism, no work would have gotten done, and the kingdom may not have survived.

Joan Of Arc

The maiden warrior who led the French soldiers in the Battle of Orleans is known by many names; Joan of Arc, Jeanne d’Arc, St. Joan of Arc, and Maid of Orleans. However, no matter how she is referred, her story is still the same and still full of power and mystery.
Orchestral Manoeuvres In The Dark - Maid Of Orleans

Biographical Information

Jeanne d’Arc, was born the daughter of Jacques d’Arc and Isabelle Romée in Domrémy, France in 1412 b.c. She later died at the age of 19 on May 30, 1431 in Rouen, France (then ruled by England). She had been captured by the English and burned at the stake as punishment for twelve crimes, one of them being heresy.

Memorable Moments

While in trial, when asked if she knew she was in God's grace, Joan of Arc replied,

"If I am not, may God put me there; and if I am, may God so keep me."

While in control of the French army, it was made known that Joan of Arc had a famously short temper. She never hesitated to yell at prestigious knights for swearing, behaving indecently, skipping Mass or dismissing her battle plans; she even accused some of spinelessness in their dealings with the English. Despite her harshness on her troops, while commander of the French army, Joan never participated in battle.

The Battle of Orleans

Sunday, Oct. 12th 1428 at 12am

Orléans, France

Orléans-la-Source, Centre

The Siege of Orléans was a turning point in the Hundred Years' War for France. It was the first major military victory under the power of Joan of Arc and the first French military success to follow the their defeat at Agincourtin.


Joan of Arc what ended the Hundred Years War. She insisted that the French army fight to win and not just 'play' at war. When she did this, she also helped to end the suffering of the commoners and bring peace to the kingdom.