Ethical Research



The act of presenting words, ideas, or pictures as your own.

How to avoid plagiarism?

  • cite or credit your sources
  • give the author credit for their work and ideas
  • paraphrase
  • "quotes"
  • summarizing
  • Paraphrasing! "Quotes" Summarizing!

    • Rephrasing the words from someone else's idea.
    You MUST cite when you are paraphrasing. You are still using someone's ideas.


    • The exact words of the author, copied directly from a source word for word
    • when using quotes you can't use to many
    You MUST cite when using quotes.


    • putting the main ideas of an authors writing in your own words
    You MUST cite when summarizing.

    Effective searching!

    • use more than one word but no more than five
    • use synonyms
    • use proper nouns and numbers

    Credible and Reliable?

    • has a URL with (.com/.edu/.org)
    • has the same information as other cites
    • if it has sponsors or ads, then it probably isn't accurate

    What to cite, and what not to cite.

    Yes, cite

    • you are getting information from other cites
    • cite when you are paraphrasing, quoting, or summarizing
    No, don't bother
    • basic information
    • your own ideas, reactions, or observations
    • results from your original research or experiment

    Citing Books!

    When citing a book you need:

    • author
    • book title
    • place of publication
    • publisher
    • year of publication