Birth to age 2


  • Refers to “the way people are.”
  • “stable individual differences in quality and intensity.
  • "Activity level, attention and emotional self-regulation.”
  • Examples;
  • Activity level: time a child spends in active versus quiet modes.
  • Intensity of reaction: in terms of being more or less loud or forceful.



  • Emotional bond between the child and the parent.
  • Become attached to people who care for them.
  • Able to control negative emotions in stressful situations.
  • More confident about exploring the world around them.

Birth-3 Months

  • Child may show excitement by looking alert.
  • Distress is shown by crying.
  • No tears when the child cries.
  • Smiles at sound of your voice.
  • Raises head and chest when lying on stomach.
  • Grasps objects,Smiles at other people.

3-6 months

6-12 months


  • Rolls from back to stomach and stomach to back.
  • Moves objects from hand to hand.
  • Responds to own name.
  • Finds partially hidden objects.

12-24 MONTHS

  • Walks with or without support.
  • Says at least one word.
  • Enjoys imitating people.
  • Walks independently, drinks from a cup.
  • Runs and jumps.
  • Follows simple instructions.
  • Begins make-believe play.