Eukaryotic Cell Organelles

By Andrew Longmire

Nucleus

Compact sphere that is the most prominent organelle. The nucleus also contains the Nucleolus. Composed of two parallel membranes separated by a narrow space, and perforated by small holes.
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Cell Wall

Only fungi and algae have cell walls. They are rigid and provide structural support and shape. Have a thick layer of chitin or cellulose. This is also used to protect the cell.
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Cytoplasmic Membrane

Type of bilayer of phospholipids with proteins imbedded. Used to keep stuff from going in or leaving. This is the outside of the cell on animal cells, while on plant cells there is the cell wall on the other side.
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Endoplasmic Reticulum

Tunnels used for transportation and storage. Includes smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum.The rough has ribosomes embedded in the layers. The endoplasmic reticulum extends from the nucleus to the cell membrane. The rough endoplasmic reticulum has proteins embedded in its outer layer giving it it's rough appearance.
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Golgi Apparatus

Site in the cell where proteins are modified and sent to final destinations. Closely related to the endoplasmic reticulum. Consists of several flattened disc-shaped sacs that have cavities inside.
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Mitochondria

The cells powerhouse, it supplies the cell with energy. When viewed they appear round or elongated scattered throughout the cytoplasm.
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Chlorplasts

Convert sunlight to energy through photosynthesis. These are only found in plant and algae. They resemble mitochondria but are larger.
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Ribosomes

These look just like dots spread out in the cell. They are protein synthesizers so they make proteins. They are also embedded in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
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Cytoskeleton

Framework of the cell, used to help anchor the cell, moving RNA and vesicles, and permitting shape change and movement.
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