Infection

By: Tiffany Fujii

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Shigella spp.

What is it and where does it come from?
  • Shigella spp. (scientific name), commonly known as Shigellosis, is usually found in contaminated water and human feces.

How does it get to us?

  • Shigellosis can occur in foods like salads, vegetables, TCS foods, and fecally infected water.


Prevention: Hand washing is key to preventing one's self from contracting Shigellosis. It is recommended to only drink treated or boiled water and only eat foods you prepare by yourself when traveling to lower risks.


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Salmonella Typhi

What is it and where does it come from?
  • Salmonella Typhi (scientific name) is commonly known as Typhoid Fever and is usually found in infected shellfish, water contaminated by waste of infected individuals, and can be spread by fecal-oral contact.


How does it get to us?

  • S. Typhi can be commonly found in shellfish from contaminated waters and be spread by individuals handling food with poor hygiene.


Prevention: S. Typhi can be avoided by preventing fecal contamination. Meaning, it is possible to control contact by practicing proper hygiene, waste management, water purification, and treatment of sick individuals to limit S. Typhi contact.

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Enterohemorrhagic and Shiga Toxin-Producing E. Coli

What is it and where does it come from?
  • Enterohemorrhagic and Shiga Toxin-Producing E.Coli (E.Coli for short) Is most commonly found in cows, especially in grounded cow meat as it had been handled more by people, increasing the risk of infection; however chicken, deer, sheep, and pigs have also been known to carry this bacteria. This will be present in meats and dairy products that have not been pasteurized or food that has made contact with human or animal feces.


How does it get to us?

  • E.Coli has been most commonly associated with ground beef because of its origin from a cow and the amount of human-hand contact this food item requires, increasing the risk of infection.


Prevention: Anything has the potential to contain E.Coli as E.coli can last for several weeks on hard surfaces. To avoid this bacteria, one must wash hands thoroughly when preparing food and fresh vegetables and fruit must be washed and skin be removed if possible to lower risks of infection. Avoid cross-contamination of raw meats to ready-to-eat foods. Avoid drinking impure water.

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Hepatitis A

What is it and Where does it come from?


  • The Hepatitis A virus usually travels in feces and is spread by contamination of human feces toward other humans.


How Does it Get to Us?

  • Hepatitis A usually gets to us by infected people spreading it to us by serving food. Most of those who are infected do not know that they have it, and thus results in many people getting infected quickly.


Prevention: Luckily, Hepatitis A is one of the few food borne diseases that can be prevented by a vaccine shot; however, this vaccine has only be required to all children in 2006, so there are many who may not had the vaccine injected into them. In order to limit contact with this disease, it is best to wash your hands after using the restroom and proper hygiene must be maintained if one is serving and preparing food to others.

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Norovirus

What is it and Where does it come from?


  • The Norovirus, or the Norwalk Virus, is the most common virus that causes gastroenteritis. Many may call it the "Winter Vomiting Disease" and is usually transmitted by feces to mouth contact.


How Does it Get to Us?

  • The Norovirus is commonly contracted by human or animal feces and can be found in contaminated water or food. This virus is incredibly resistant to common disinfectants so contamination is extended, therefore makes this virus very easy to contract.


Prevention: Thankfully, Norovirus does not multiply in food as it is a virus. The only way to possibly prevent contracting this virus is to cook food properly as there is no way to assume if a food item is contaminated with this virus. It is also preferred that those who handle food maintain good hygiene and let those who are infected to stay away from the working area that involves food.