Walter Sisulu

By: Sam Winslow


Walter Sisulu was born on May 18, 1912, in the Transkei region of South Africa. He attended an Anglican missionary school until dropping out at age 15. Soon after, he returned to live with his mother to be initiated into the Xhosa tribe after being raised by his uncle and grandmother. He worked in numerous mines and factories throughout his adult life, and it was here where he met and was heavily influenced by Clements Kadalie. In late 1940, he joined the African National Conference at age 28, and he married four years later. During his time with the ANC, he was influential in the creation of the ANC youth league, and influenced Nelson Mandela. Sisulu was elected as the Secretary-General of the ANC, and carried many of James Moroka's duties in the 1950's. He was a crucial part of the planning and organization of the Defiance Campaign. After touring the Soviet Union and China in 1953, he joined the SACP. In 1955, he helped to create the Freedom Charter, a crucial document to the anti-apartheid struggle. He was one of the ANC leaders accused of treason during the Treason Trial that lasted for about five years. Although he was acquitted, he was still limited in his abilities to fight apartheid. In 1963, he was arrested and placed in solitary confinement for 88 days before being sentenced to life in prison as a result of the Rivonia Trial. During his prison sentence, Sisulu helped establish a branch of the ANC on Robben Island where he was being held. In 1989, after 26 years in prison, he was released from prison. In 1994, the ANC was elected into power and Sisulu helped to run the party. He was forced to retire due to health problems, and Walter Sisulu died on May 5, 2003 at the age of 90.

The significance of Sisulu's contributions to the anti-apartheid movement is extensive. Not only was he a crucial member of the ANC's leadership, but he was also very influential for others like Nelson Mandela who went on to become the President of the new Republic of South Africa. Sisulu organized the Defiance Campaign, and was one of the defendents in the Rivonia Trial, attesting to his importance to the ANC as a whole. He also helped to write the most important anti-apartheid document: the freedom charter. He was elected to numerous positions inside the organization, and this is another showing of how revered he was by his followers and how influential he was to South Africans. Sisulu contributed both directly and morally to the organization and he was, in a way, a mix of Albert Luthuli's charisma and beliefs, and Nelson Mandela's action and commanding nature. This was ultimately the most significant part of Sisulu's personality, and he used it to make life better for him and his people.

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"It's a law of life that problems arise when conditions are there for their solution"

-Walter Sisulu

Freedom Charter

The Freedom Charter

As adopted at the Congress of the People, Kliptown, on 26 June 1955

We, the People of South Africa, declare for all our country and the world to know:

    that South Africa belongs to all who live in it, black and white, and that no government can justly claim authority unless it is based on the will of all the people;

    that our people have been robbed of their birthright to land, liberty and peace by a form of government founded on injustice and inequality;

    that our country will never be prosperous or free until all our people live in brotherhood, enjoying equal rights and opportunities;

    that only a democratic state, based on the will of all the people, can secure to all their birthright without distinction of colour, race, sex or belief;

    And therefore, we, the people of South Africa, black and white together equals, countrymen and brothers adopt this Freedom Charter;

    And we pledge ourselves to strive together, sparing neither strength nor courage, until the democratic changes here set out have been won.

The People Shall Govern!

    Every man and woman shall have the right to vote for and to stand as a candidate for all bodies which make laws;

    All people shall be entitled to take part in the administration of the country;

    The rights of the people shall be the same, regardless of race, colour or sex;

    All bodies of minority rule, advisory boards, councils and authorities shall be replaced by democratic organs of self-government .

All National Groups Shall have Equal Rights!

    There shall be equal status in the bodies of state, in the courts and in the schools for all national groups and races;

    All people shall have equal right to use their own languages, and to develop their own folk culture and customs;

    All national groups shall be protected by law against insults to their race and national pride;

    The preaching and practice of national, race or colour discrimination and contempt shall be a punishable crime;

    All apartheid laws and practices shall be set aside.

The People Shall Share in the Country`s Wealth!

    The national wealth of our country, the heritage of South Africans, shall be restored to the people;

    The mineral wealth beneath the soil, the Banks and monopoly industry shall be transferred to the ownership of the people as a whole;

    All other industry and trade shall be controlled to assist the wellbeing of the people;

    All people shall have equal rights to trade where they choose, to manufacture and to enter all trades, crafts and professions.

The Land Shall be Shared Among Those Who Work It!

    Restrictions of land ownership on a racial basis shall be ended, and all the land re-divided amongst those who work it to banish famine and land hunger;

    The state shall help the peasants with implements, seed, tractors and dams to save the soil and assist the tillers;

    Freedom of movement shall be guaranteed to all who work on the land;

    All shall have the right to occupy land wherever they choose;

    People shall not be robbed of their cattle, and forced labour and farm prisons shall be abolished.

All Shall be Equal Before the Law!

    No-one shall be imprisoned, deported or restricted without a fair trial; No-one shall be condemned by the order of any Government official;

    The courts shall be representative of all the people;

    Imprisonment shall be only for serious crimes against the people, and shall aim at re-education, not vengeance;

    The police force and army shall be open to all on an equal basis and shall be the helpers and protectors of the people;

    All laws which discriminate on grounds of race, colour or belief shall be repealed.

All Shall Enjoy Equal Human Rights!

    The law shall guarantee to all their right to speak, to organise, to meet together, to publish, to preach, to worship and to educate their children;

    The privacy of the house from police raids shall be protected by law;

    All shall be free to travel without restriction from countryside to town, from province to province, and from South Africa abroad;

    Pass Laws, permits and all other laws restricting these freedoms shall be abolished.

There Shall be Work and Security!

    All who work shall be free to form trade unions, to elect their officers and to make wage agreements with their employers;

    The state shall recognise the right and duty of all to work, and to draw full unemployment benefits;

    Men and women of all races shall receive equal pay for equal work;

    There shall be a forty-hour working week, a national minimum wage, paid annual leave, and sick leave for all workers, and maternity leave on full pay for all working mothers;

    Miners, domestic workers, farm workers and civil servants shall have the same rights as all others who work;

    Child labour, compound labour, the tot system and contract labour shall be abolished.

The Doors of Learning and Culture Shall be Opened!

    The government shall discover, develop and encourage national talent for the enhancement of our cultural life;

    All the cultural treasures of mankind shall be open to all, by free exchange of books, ideas and contact with other lands;

    The aim of education shall be to teach the youth to love their people and their culture, to honour human brotherhood, liberty and peace;

    Education shall be free, compulsory, universal and equal for all children; Higher education and technical training shall be opened to all by means of state allowances and scholarships awarded on the basis of merit;

    Adult illiteracy shall be ended by a mass state education plan;

    Teachers shall have all the rights of other citizens;

    The colour bar in cultural life, in sport and in education shall be abolished.

There Shall be Houses, Security and Comfort!

    All people shall have the right to live where they choose, be decently housed, and to bring up their families in comfort and security;

    Unused housing space to be made available to the people;

    Rent and prices shall be lowered, food plentiful and no-one shall go hungry;

    A preventive health scheme shall be run by the state;

    Free medical care and hospitalisation shall be provided for all, with special care for mothers and young children;

    Slums shall be demolished, and new suburbs built where all have transport, roads, lighting, playing fields, creches and social centres;

    The aged, the orphans, the disabled and the sick shall be cared for by the state;

    Rest, leisure and recreation shall be the right of all:

    Fenced locations and ghettoes shall be abolished, and laws which break up families shall be repealed.

There Shall be Peace and Friendship!

    South Africa shall be a fully independent state which respects the rights and sovereignty of all nations;

    South Africa shall strive to maintain world peace and the settlement of all international disputes by negotiation - not war;

    Peace and friendship amongst all our people shall be secured by upholding the equal rights, opportunities and status of all;

    The people of the protectorates Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland shall be free to decide for themselves their own future;

    The right of all peoples of Africa to independence and self-government shall be recognised, and shall be the basis of close co-operation.

    Let all people who love their people and their country now say, as we say here: