A Focus on Modeling
Effective Reading & Writing Instruction
Key Ideas from the Article
- Conditional knowledge - why this strategy being used
- Procedural knowledge - instruction on how to use the strategy
- Declarative knowledge - what strategies should be used in a given situation (show students that different strategies are more appropriate than others for given situations)
Teachers need to overtly state their reasoning during each step of the modeling process.
Teachers should also model self-regulatory feedback, like stating "I did that correctly and followed all the steps," (called strategy implementation) along the way, as well, because it promotes the idea that students have control over external factors in their learning (such as following the steps correctly) rather than thinking learning is only effected by internal factors (intelligence).
Teachers can also model their frustrations and how they overcome those frustrations to move along.
Ways to Model Effectively
Self-Regulated Strategy Development Model - Used especially in writing instruction - 6 stages of instruction with focus on self regulatory skills (develop background knowledge, discuss it, model it, memorize it, support it and independent practice).
Reading & Writing Strategies to Model
Reading:Summarization Strategy - Summarizing who and what each paragraph is about in a student's own words when they finish reading the paragraph
STOP strategy - Suspend judgment, Take a side, Organize ideas, Plan more as you write
What are other examples of strategies that are important to overtly model for students?
What characteristics are notable in a self-regulated learner that aren't in a learner who does not possess self-regulation skills?
Berkely S. & Regan, K. (2011). Effective Reading and Writing Instruction: A Focus on Modeling. Intervention in School and Clinic 2012 47: 276. DOI: 10.1177/1053451211430117