Carbohydrates

Sugars with a typical ratio of oxygen and hydrogen 1:2.

Monomers for Carbohydrates

The monomers for carbs are called monosaccharides. Some are called isomers, meaning the two formulas for different monosaccharides are the same but with different arrangements, like glucose and fructose.

Polymers for Carbohydrates

Polymers for carbohydrates go under three different groups, disaccharides, ogliosaccharides, and polysaccharides. The first group has two monosaccharides, the second has three to ten different sugars, and the third has any amount more than 10 sugars.

Examples

  • Lactose
  • Glucose
  • Frucose
  • Maltose
  • Allose

Functional groups always found in Carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates contain hydroxyl groups and both ketones and aldehydes in the carbonyl. All monosaccharides have a hydroxyl group except one.

Function of Carbohydrates and How Their Structures Affect Function

The main function are to distribute energy, maintain blood glucose levels, and to prevent ketosis. The different types of carbohydrate's structures affect the function too. With monosaccharides, their function is to provide energy, due to the fact that many disaccharides contain glucose, a monosaccharide, disaccharides are used for transporting monosaccharides (mostly glucose). Finally, ogliosaccharides and polysaccharides like starch are also used to for more long term energy as they are mostly formed by huge chains of glucose or other common monosaccharides.

Bibliography

"Carbohydrate." Iowa State University Extension and Outreach. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.