Arthropod Information -Erica Chen

Vu - PreAP Biology - April 6, 2014 - Period 3

Objective: Students will be learning the anatomy of an arthropod specifically the organs, functions, and interactions of the arthropod's integumentary system


Also known as locusts and in the order Orthroptera, grasshoppers are herbivores that eats grass, leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, and sometimes dead insects. They are preyed by ground beetles which eats grasshopper eggs, wasps, ants, praying mantis, spiders, mites, centipedes, frogs, toads, lizards, snakes, birds, and small animals. Grasshoppers are found in temperate, tropical, and terrestrial habitats. Many live in deserts or dunes, chaparral, forest, rain forest, scrub forest, and marshes. In their ecosystem, grasshoppers are considered important herbivores. There are sometimes so many, eating so much, that they change the richness and abundance of plant species where they live. Grasshoppers are mostly active during the day, but also feed at night. They don't have nests or territories, and some species go on long migrations in search for food. Grasshoppers all hatch from eggs, and they grow through incomplete metamorphosis.


Crayfish, also called crawfish, crawdads, freshwater lobsters and mudbugs, are invertebrates meaning that they don't have bone, but they do have an exoskeleton to protect their inner body. These animals are found in temperate and freshwater habitats located in lakes, ponds, rivers and streams. Crayfish mostly feeds on insects, snails, other invertebrates, aquatic plants, and algae and their enemies are fish, otter, raccoon, mink, and great blue heron. In their ecosystem, crayfish serves as an important food source for their predators and act to control the populations of their prey species.
A Guide to Crayfish-Ministry for Primary Industries

Crayfish Taxonomy

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Anthropoda

Subphylum: Crustacea

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Suborder: Pleocyemata

Infraorder: Astacidea

Superfamily: Astacoidea

Grasshopper Taxonomy

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Anthropoda

Subphylum: Hexapoda

Class: Insecta

Order: Orthroptera

Suborder: Caelifera

Grasshopper Adaptations

  • hind legs that jumps to escape predators
  • strong jaws to grab and chew food
  • feelers near mouth to taste food before eating it
  • hard exoskeleton to keep internal organs damp while they're in dry environments
  • wings for transportation and a way to escape predators
  • colored external covering for camouflage to hide from predator
  • spit brown liquid believed to be for self-defense

Crayfish Adaptation

  • escape predator with "tail-flip" response. This is a rapid flip of their tail segment which is send in the opposite direction of where they sense disturbance which distracts predator
  • well-adapted eyes that see all direction just by turning stem
  • two pairs of sensitive antennae that help detect movement in water
  • females are able to store sperm until they're ready to lay eggs
  • colored exoskeleton for camouflage
  • large pincer to grab and hold prey

Arthropoda Evolutionary Relationship

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Lab Dissection

Grasshopper Dissection
Crayfish Anatomy Part 1

Integumentary System

Arthropod's integumentary system is the exoskeleton. Exoskeleton contains rigid and resistant components that fulfil a set of functional roles such as protection, excretion, sensing, support, and feeding. It is made up of chitin and the addition of calcium carbonate makes them harder. When these skins are outgrown, it is shed in a process call molting. The epicuticle is the outermost part of the cuticle. Its function si to reduce water loss and block the invasion of foreign matter. The innermost layer of spicuticle is often called the cuticulum layer, a stratum composed of lipoproteins and chains of fatty acids embedded in a protein-polyphenol complex. An oriented monolayer of wax molecules lies just the cuticulim layer; it serves as the cheif barrier to movement of water into or out of the insects's body. In many insectsm a cement layer covers the wax and protects it from abrasion.

Grasshopper Fun Facts

  • have ears on their belly
  • make music by rubbing hind leg against fore wing
  • causes billions of dollars in damage to food crops, annually, worldwide
  • provide important source of protein to people in many parts of the world
  • exists long before dinosaurs
  • can leap up to 200 times their length in one jump
  • temperature can be determined based on their chirping
  • young grasshoppers can eat two times their weight in a day
  • active during the day, quiet and clam at night
  • will consume almost any plant when hungry
  • cleans themselves frequently

Crayfish Fun Facts

  • is a freshwater variant of a lobster
  • when they molt, they eat their old exoskeleton
  • comes in variety of colors such as blue, white, red, pink, sandy, yellow, and dark brown
  • red is most common, then blue, then white
  • with proper care, crayfish can live two years in captivity
  • over 350 species of 500 in the world lives in United States
  • can eat hot dogs and cat food
  • live in every continent except Africa and Antarctica