Absence of Parents

By: Caroline, Dani, Jessica, Meg, Morgan


Children with an absent parent are proven to be at a higher risk for psychological, behavioral, and social issues.


Children develop more self independence because the need for household work becomes more demanding.

Single Parent Homes

"Feelings of abandonment, sadness, loneliness and difficulty socializing and connecting with others. Effects vary from child to child, however, and the individual parenting style of the single parent is also a big influence on the child’s development" (Kunz).

”Work-family conflict refers to cognitive appraisals that involve the extent to which individuals feel that demands in the paid work domain interfere with their ability to meet demands in the family domain”(Nomaguchi).

Incarcerated Parents

Children who are separated from their parents due to incarceration are usually less social because they do not have a stable relationship with their parent. Also, the children are usually more prone to imitate the bad behavior of the incarcerated parent. If the parent is an avid substance abuse or abuses his or her own children, these children are more prone to carry on the cycle of abuse. These children are also more likely to have attachment disorders as they become older.

Death of a Parent

When a child experiences the death of a parent, they are more susceptible to periods of stress and depression, and also display lower self-esteems and self-efficacy. If the surviving parent is not able to create a strong support system for the child, then the child is more likely to assume parental roles. Such roles could include getting jobs at young ages and taking care of siblings or even the surviving parent themselves. Their understanding of death and individual attributes may influence how they are able to deal with the grief.

Psychological Effects of a Deployed Parent

"'Kids who have moms and dads in conflict are grieving, whether they have lost that parent or not"' (DiConsiglio). Each child tends to cope in a different way depending on age and when the parent is deployed. The process of deployment and return includes, "Emotional detachment changes in family roles and routines, emotional destabilization, reintegration of returning parent (Lincoln).

Studies on Home Life with Deployed Parent

  • 2011 study about drugs and alcohol usage by kids of deployed military parents
  • “Conclusions: Children of deployed military personnel should be considered at higher risk for substance use than children of non-military citizens” (Acion).

  • Study measuring child emotion and behavior, worry, parent safety, world safety, perceptions of the future
  • Found that children’s emotions and behaviors worsened while their parent/parents were deployed, however increased back to normal (pre-deployment levels) once the parent/parents returned from deployment


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Eppler, Christie. "Exploring Themes Of Resiliency In Children After The Death Of A Parent." Professional School

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17 July 2002. Web. 14 Nov. 2014. <http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED468566.pdf>.

Kunz, Marnie. "The Effects of a Single Parent Home on a Child's Behavior."Livestrong 06 Jan. 2014: n. pag.

EBSCO. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.

Lincoln, Alan, Erika Swift, and Mia Shorteno-Fraser. "Psychological Adjustment And Treatment Of Children

And Families With Parents Deployed In Military Combat." Journal Of Clinical Psychology 64.8 (2008): 984-992. Professional Development Collection. Web. 12 Nov. 2014

Nomaguchi, Kei M. "Marital Status, Gender, and Home-to-Job Conflict Among Employed Parents." 2011. MS (419)

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Pfefferbaum, Betty, et al. "Children Of National Guard Troops Deployed In The Global War On Terrorism." Journal Of

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