John Bardeen

Most Influential Scientist In History :)

Early Life/ Childhood

John Bardeen was born on May 23, 1908 in Madison, Wisconsin. He was the second son of Dr. Charles Russell Bardeen, dean of the University of Wisconsin medical school, and Althea Harmer Bardeen, a well-educated young woman who had studied art and design at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn. Bardeen was a very smart child from birth -- his parents decided to move him from third grade up into junior high. When Bardeen was 12, his mother became seriously ill with cancer. Thinking he was helping his kids, Dr. Bardeen softened how serious her illness really was. John didn't realize she was dying, and was shocked when it happened. His father then married his secretary, Ruth Hames, wanting to give his young children the family he thought they needed. But Bardeen was still heartbroken and distracted, barely passing French that year. Nevertheless, he made it through high school and entered the University of Wisconsin in the fall of 1923 at the age of 15, where he majored in engineering.

How he became interested in science

John Bardeen stayed on at the University of Wisconsin to get his Master's degree in electrical engineering. He chose engineering because it had lots of the math he loved, but it also had good job prospects. He didn't want to be an academic, like his father. By the time he graduated, however, the Depression had struck and jobs were scarce. Bardeen was courted briefly by Bell Labs, but a hiring freeze closed that door. One of the few companies still hiring was Gulf Oil Company, and Bardeen took a job there as a geophysicist. He was there for three years, but he always kept an eye on advances in the world of physics. His heart wasn't in geology -- the time had come to go back to school.

Contribution That Shaped History

Imagine, if you can, a world without computers, cell phones or all modern electronics. This would be a world without John Bardeen. In 1947, Bardeen and Bell Labs' colleague Walter Brattain invented the transistor which amplifies and switches electronic signals. The “solid state” transistor replaced vacuum tubes as the building block of modern radios and other small electronic devices.


In 1951, Bardeen left Bell Labs to enjoy the freedom of pursuing his own research at Illinois. Here he would become the first person to win two Nobel Prizes in Physics. Bardeen shared his first Nobel with William Shockley and Walter Brattain for the transistor. Bardeen’s second prize was shared with Leon Cooper and J. Robert Schrieffer for their explanation of the theory of superconductivity, known as the BCS Theory. They were the first to explain on a microscopic level how a metal has zero electrical resistance at very low temperatures.

During his 60-year scientific career, Bardeen made significant contributions to almost every aspect of condensed matter physics--from his early work on the electronic behavior of metals, the surface properties of semiconductors and the theory of diffusion of atoms in crystals to his most recent work on quasi-one-dimensional metals. In his eighty-third year, he continued to publish original scientific papers.

John Bardeen Physics Trabajo Final Editado.mp4

Resources

John Bardeen - Facts". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. 11 Dec 2014. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1956/bardeen-facts.html>


Enc., Editors O. "John Bardeen."Http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/53122/John-Bardeen. Http://www.britannica.com/bps/user-profile/4419/the-editors-of-encyclopaedia-britannica, 5 May 2014. Web. `12 Dec. 2014.



Illn., Unv. Of. "Department of Physics at the U of I." John Bardeen. University of Illinois, 2 July 2014. Web. 12 Dec. 2014.


Levine, Aliana G. "John Bardeen, William Shockley, Walter Brattain Invention of the Transistor - Bell Laboratories." American Physical Society. APS Physics, 7 Aug. 2008. Web. 12 Dec. 2014.


Scien., Famous. "John Bardeen." Famous Scientists. Famous Scientists, Feb.-Mar. 2008. Web. 12 Dec. 2014.



Genuis, Spark .. "News." "Spark of Genius: The Story of John Bardeen" BTN, 19 Aug. 2008. Web. 12 Dec. 2014.



Bells, Mary .. "John Bardeen." John Bardeen. Mary Bells, 15 Nov. 2014. Web. 12 Dec. 2014.

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