Update on Bosnia

By: Eva Chung & Kobra Rahimi

Bosnia Geography

Bosnia is a compact state with an eastern capital. It used to be part of Yugoslavia. The shape of the country doesn't have an effect on the conflict, except the fact that the Serbs want it to themselves. Bosnia is a multinational-state because it has more than one nation within its borders. Bosnia's border dispute is over territory. The Serbs wanted Bosnia to themselves and planned to kill the "others." The type of boundary is political.

Forces

Centripetal:
  • The shared history and struggle they had when they were part of Yugoslavia.
  • The idea that they each want their own territory.
  • The idea that they want to protect their own religious belief.
  • Transportation & communication networks


Centrifugal:

  • Ethnicity - Serbs, Croats, & Bosniaks (Muslims)
  • Religion- Eastern Orthodox (Serbs), Roman Catholic (Croats), and Islam(Bosniaks)
  • Persecutions of the Bosniaks & Croats.

Conflict Timeline

1992
  • February 29- Bosnia & Herzegovina declared independence
  • April 7- Serbs began taking over Sarajevo. They killed 30% of Muslims & Croats.

1993

  • Bosnian Muslims & Croats fight over the part of Bosnia that was not taken over by the Serbs.
  • The UN refused to intervene in the war, but instead its troops facilitated humanitarian aid. The UN declares six safe zones for Muslims: Sarajevo, Tuzla, Bihac, Srebrenica, Zepa, and Gorazde.

1994

  • February 28- NATO shoots down four Serbian aircraft.
  • March 18 - Bosnian Muslims & Croats sign peace treaty led by the United States.
  • Several peace proposals were rejected because the Serbs refused to surrender the territory they controlled (70% of Bosnia was controlled by them).

1995

  • May 24- NATO launches an aircraft attack on Serb ammunition depot because the Serbs forces refused to remove heavy weapons from Sarajevo. In response the Serbs attack Muslim safe zones.
  • August 30, NATO airstrike go against Serbs in and around Sarajevo.
  • November 21 - Leaders of Bosnia, Serbia, and Croatia agree on a settlement.
  • December 14- The Dayton Accord was signed by Bosnians, Croats, and Serbs which allowed NATO troops into the territories to keep peace.
  • December 20, NATO takes peacekeeping duties from the UN.