Africa

The Problems and Culture of its People

Below are the problems of Africa

Desertification

"The process by which fertile land becomes desert, typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or inappropriate agriculture." Mostly affected because of the severe droughts and many people are becoming dependent on natural resources due to poverty. Drought and land degradation all contribute to the desertification Africa is facing. The excessive amount of salt in the soil can damage the land beyond economic repair. Desertification is most severe in Senegal, West Africa.

OverPopulation

Overpopulation is one of the main problems of Africa. The population of the sub- Saharan is increasing at the rate of 2.5 annually. The population of Africa could double by the year of 2036 if it's not decreased. Many cities, and towns, in Africa could triple in population within 50 years. The sharp decline in infant and child mortality rates coupled with a high fertility rate causing overpopulation in many places in Africa.

Apartheid

"A policy or system of segregation or discrimination on grounds of race." In 1948, after the National Party gained power in South africa all-white government began enforcing policies of racial segregation. Non-white South Africans were forced to live separate from all other whites. Most contact would be ended between the non-whites and whites. The law remained in effect for 50 years until President F.W. de Klerk began to repeal the legislation in 1991. The 1913 Land Act began the territorial segregation acts which then led most of South Africa into the apartheid. Then in 1948, The Great Depression and World War II help convince the government to bring separation throughout all of South Africa. The Afrikaner National Party won the general election, making their goal to not only separate whites from non-whites, but also separate non-white majority with the white minority. Also, wanted to decrease tribes political power so divided along tribal lines. By 1950, apartheid become a law. By 1976, the law was dropped and lifted.

Genocide

"The deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation." The Rwandan Genocide was a mass slaughtering of Tutsi and Hutu in Rwanda. An estimate of 500,00- 1,000,000 Rwandans were killed. Took place in 1994, approximately 100-day period. From April 7 to mid-July. Rwanda is in central and East Africa. The genocide took place because of the death of Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana (A Hutu).

Civil Wars

Africa's Civil wars were not like many other civil wars and started because of religious or ethnic groups, Africa's civil wars were mostly started due to poverty, failed political institutions, and economic dependence on natural resources. Libya, Mali, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Congo, and South Sudan is where most of the civil wars are happening as of 2002-2011. Over the last 40 years over 20 African countries, estimated 20% of African countries now live in countries where civil war is happening.

Disease

Diseases are relatively high in Africa. The most common diseases in Africa are Ebola, Amebiasis, Hookworm, Polio, Cholera, Hypertension, Schistosomiasis, Dengue, Jaundice, Sickle Cell, Leishmaniasis, Syphilis, Giardiasis, Lymphatic, Filariasis, Trypanosomiasis. Many of these diseases could be avoided if there wasn't a lack of education and personal hygiene. The most common for these diseases to be dominant are in Central, Northern and East Africa.

Lack of Education

A lack of education contributes to the problems Africa faces each day because if Africans had the correct education they could learn precautions to prevent things such as disease. Also, a lack of education contributes to the problems of Africa because education could help africans to keep their land from drying up causing desertification. Also, education could help more people understand how overpopulation could dramatically affect their lifestyles and create a negative effect on Africa.

Rites of Passage

A ceremony that marks the transition from one phase of life to another. The most important stage in the rites of passage for Africa is from child to adult. Rites of Passage also serves a big role as a symbol of collective immortality and permanence. The males are preparing for their responsibilities while the women are preparing for their responsibilities also.
Rites of Passage - Tribal Rites

Swahili

A bantu language. Swahili language is used in the African Great lakes region, and other parts of Southeast Africa, including Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Mozambique, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
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Polygamy

Polygamy is the belief in having one or more wives/husbands. Polygamy was commonly found in the West part of Africa until Islam started to diffuse. Now, polygamy is commonly found in Kenya, South Africa, and Sudan. Polygamy is practiced all around Africa but most likely prominent in West African countries.

Bantu

Bantu is a Niger-Congo language. Also, a term for over 400 different ethnic groups in Africa. Bantu language is most commonly found in Rwanda, Angola, Burundi, Zimbabwe, and South africa, with some exception of other nations in the Southern part of Africa.
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