Chapter 19: High Middle Ages
By: Priyanaka and Lauren
1. Explain the relationship between Holy Roman Emperors and the Popes.
Otto protected the church of quell and was proclaimed emperor in 962 CE by pope John the XII; this was the beginning of the holy Roman Empire.
The popes crowned the emperors.
Popes and emperors had stressed relationships due to their large claims in authority in Christian Rome.
2. Explain the development of Regional States in England, France, and Italy.
- Regional states were formed due to a lack in effective imperial rule.
- Princes established rule in regions.
- France - After Carolingians death in 987 CE French lords elected Hugh Capetian a noble minor as king of France and he used the lords to absorb territories after they died without heirs. Slowly gained more and more power forming a centralized rule in France.
- England - English monarchy was started by Normans, the Vikings. They ignored their lords and pursued their own interests. They formed a tight centralized rule in which dukes had all the authority.
- Italy - highly influenced by church; popes provided leadership; large norman mercenaries moved down to southern italy and overcame muslim and byzantine authorities and brought southern Italy into the orbit of Roman Catholic Christianity. .
3. Describe how agriculture contributed to the economy and development of cities and towns.
Increased agriculture, manufacturing and trade transformed europe into a powerful society. It created many commercial relationships with distant lands.
Monks and lords encouraged the clearing of forests to create more arable land for cultivation.
Improved farming techniques to get bigger yields and keep soil fertile.
They kept domestic animals to provided as a source of food and their droppings were used as fertilizer; also had fishes.
Water mills and heavy plows increased agriculture production; horse shoes and collars helped make agriculture more efficient.
Grains, vegetables, fish, etc.
The agriculture production caused an increase in population, by 1200 the population rose to 58 million people.
4. Describe, in detail, the Estate System.
The estate system was Divided into 3 estates which were the broad orders or high archy.
Church or (those who prayed) which consisted of the clergy of the Catholic church and was the spiritual state
Nobility or (those who fought such as Knights) which was the feudal nobles or military state
Peasantry (everyone else, at least under feudalism. People who produced food which supported those who prayed and those who fought, the members of the First and Second Estates).
- The traditional "estates" are gender specific. They are defined by what a man does for a living as much as by the social class he was born into.
5. Analyze development in Christianity from Cathedral Schools to the thoughts of St. Thomas Aquinas.
-During the middle ages, the European society was not very wealthy, so they were unable to support institutions for advanced education.
-During the high middle ages, economic development increasing tremendously, allowing more resources to become available for education
- - The demand for educated people with the ability to deal with legal, political, and theological issues increased.
- -Monasteries had schools that provided a basic education for individuals.
- -Cathedral schools often used the bible as something to teach pupils of the school the early Christian Church because they did not have a developed curriculum
-During the 11th century, bishops and archbishops in Italy and France organized schools in cathedrals and recruited scholars to teach at their cathedrals.
-A formal curriculum had been created for the cathedral schools by the 12th century. The curriculum included instruction in medicine, law, and theology.
-During the 13th century, Aristotle's literary works pieces spread throughout Europe. His writings amalgamated Christianity and Greek philosophy to inspire scholastic theologians, the most famous being St. Thomas Aquinas.
-Universities began to appear throughout Europe by the late 13th century.
6. Summarize the ideals of the Dominicans and Franciscans.
Originally known as the Order of Preachers
Study- Dominican tradition and heritage of study is freedom of research
prayer/contemplate/reflect- example: the love of the Gospel Matthew
Community- to work for a more just and loving world
Service- compassion was one of Dominic’s outstanding qualities
- Laudare, Benedicere, Praedicare- To praise, to bless and to preach
- Veritas- Truth
- Contemplate et Contemplata Aliis Tradere- To study (or contemplate) and to hand on the fruits of study
- Any member of a Christian religious order founded in the early 13th century by St. Francis of Assisi
- The Franciscans are the largest religious order in the Roman Catholic church
- Members of the order strive to cultivate the ideals of the order’s founder. Consist of three orders:
The 3 orders
1. The First Order comprises priests and lay brothers who have sworn to lead a life of prayer, preaching, and penance. This First Order is divided into three independent branches: the Friars Minor, the Friars Minor Conventual, and the Friars Minor Capuchin.
2. The Second Order consists of cloistered nuns who belong to the Order of St. Clare and are known as Poor Clares.
3. The Third Order consists of religious and lay men and women who try to emulate Saint Francis’ spirit by performing works of teaching, charity, and social service. The latter order consists of the Third Order Secular, whose lay members live in the world without vows; and the Third Order Regular, whose members live in religious communities under vow.
7. Impact of European expansion from Vikings, reconquista and the crusades.
-Many European Colonies were established by the vikings in Greenland and Iceland by the Scandinavian seafarers
-Economic expansion strengthened European society. It led to the colonization of pagan and Muslim lands in the Baltic, Mediterranean, and the Atlantic Sea.
- In the Baltic region, the Europeans conquered Livonia, Lithuania, Prussia, and Finland. They then introduced them to Christianity.
-In the Mediterranean Basin, they captured Spain and the mediterranean islands that the Muslims conquered in the 8th and 10th centuries.
-Knights from all over Europe united to seize Palestine from the Muslims and place it under Christian authority.
-While Scandinavians were exploring the North Atlantic, they were drawn into the community of Christian Europe. The kings of Denmark and Norway converted to Christianity in the 10th century which led to the conversion of their countrymen.
-The military conquests introduced Christianity in the Baltic regions of Livonia, Lithuania, and Prussia
-in the 9th century the Muslims took over cicily, but then in the 11th century the Norman warriors returned it to Christianity.
-Robert Guiscards brother undertook the reconquest of Sicily and after 20 years of conflict he established his authority throughout the island. Missionaries and clergy reintroduced Roman Catholic Christianity.
-Muslims deceased in number, they either converted to Christianity or practiced in private.
-The reconquest of Spain took much longer than Sicily. It started in the 1060's and by 1085 Christian forces pushed south to Toledo. By 1150 they captured Lisbon and established authority over half the Iberian Pennnsula
-this successful conversion attracted French and English support as well and more campaigns brought most of Iberia and the Baleric Islands into Christianity.
-Granada was the only Muslim kingdom left on the peninsula . It survived until 1492 until Christian forces overtook it and reconquested it too.
-The reconquista was driven due to political economic and religious aspects.
-In 1095, Pope Urban II created the Crusades. He had knights take up arms and seize the holy land. To persuade them, he promised salvation for the Knights who fell during the campaign.
-In 1096, armies traveled to Palestine and in 1099 they took over Antioch, Jerusalem, and Edessa. Because of the Crusaders success, other neighboring countries decided to settle their differencesand interests of expelling European Christians from the Eastern Mediterranean.
-The Christian Crusaders held on for another century, but Saladin victories drove Christian forces out of the Mediterranean.
-During the 13th century, there were 5 large Crusades, but none of them succeeded in reestablishing a Christian presence in Palestine. They failed in their main objective.
-Up until the 16th century, crusading gave the Europeans a dream and hope of conquests.