Covalent Bonds Vs. Ionic Bonds

the difference between the two

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is the complete transfer of valence electron(s) between atoms. It is a type of chemical bond that generates two oppositely charged ions. In ionic bonds, the metal loses electrons to become a positively charged cation, whereas the non-metal accepts those electrons to become a negatively charged anion. Ionic bonds require an electron donor, metal, and an electron acceptor, nonmetal.

Valence electrons determine the combining capacity of atoms.
In ionic bonding, valence electrons are taken from the less electronegative atom and the more electronegative atom receives them.

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Covalent bonds

Covalent bonding is the sharing of electrons between atoms. This type of bonding occurs between two of the same element or elements close to each other in the periodic table. This bonding occurs primarily between nonmetals; however, it can also be observed between nonmetals and metals as well.

In covalent bonding, the valence electrons are shared between atoms; hence, a bond is created.
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Periodic trends

Periodic trends affect bonding due to the arrangement of the elements on the periodic table.
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