He also created the first web browser and editor. The world's first website (http://info.cern.ch) was launched on the 6th of August 1991. It explained the World Wide Web concept and gave users an introduction to getting started with their own websites.
In 1952, on the 7th of June, Alan Turing committed suicide after being arrested and tried for homosexuality.
The 4 Generations of Computers
The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. They were massive, taking up entire rooms. First generation computers used machine language. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape and output was displayed on printouts. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951.
Transistors replaced vacuum tubes in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 1950s.The computers became smaller, faster, and cheaper. Second generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.
The integrated circuits was the hallmark of the third generation of computers.Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.
In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices.
The Fifth Generation Computer Systems project was an initiative by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry, begun in 1982, to create a computer using massively parallel computing /processing. The term "fifth generation" was intended to convey the system as being a leap beyond existing machines. The project was to create the computer over a ten-year period, after which it was considered ended and investment in a new "sixth generation" project would begin. Opinions about its outcome are divided: either it was a failure, or it was ahead of its time.
Inputs and Outputs
- Stylus pen
- Touch screen
- Game controller
RAM= Random Access Memory
ROM is memory that cannot be changed by a program or user. ROM retains its memory even after the computer is turned off. Eg, ROM stores the instructions for the computer to start up when it is turned on again.
RAM is a fast temporary type of memory in which programs, applications and data are stored. Some examples:
-the operating system
-the graphical user interface (GUI)