"The Thirteen Colonies"
By: Ti'Dashia James.....Period:5th......Ms.Harvey
John Smith and a number of rich Englishmen sailed through the Chesapeake Bay to reach the Powhatan's river. They settled along the banks of this river and named it as James river after King James I. The English government sent many Englishmen to this new settlement, luring them with promises of discoveries of gold.
Peter Minuit, a Walloon explorer, bought the island of Manhattan from local tribes in 1626. He paid the native Lenape people 60 guilders for the land.
In 1608, English separatists left England and settled in Holland. In 1620, they decided to emigrate to America. These separatists, also called Pilgrims, came to America in the ship Mayflower. The Mayflower carried 102 passengers to a place called Cape Cod Bay. They settled in a harbor near Cape Cod Bay and named it as Plymouth harbor.
In 1623, John Mason formed a fishing company in Massachusetts. He sent some fish merchants and a number of other people to a place near the mouth of Piscataqua river. They named this place, now known as Town of Rye, as Little Harbor. Fishing business flourished in this province. This colony was under the British reign and was previously known as North Virginia.
King Charles I sent Cecil Calvert to America to form the colony named Maryland. Maryland was named after King Charles wife, Queen Mary. People who adopted Maryland as a new home wanted to get away with the unfair and unjust treatment meted out to them by the Church of England. Annapolis was declared as the capital of Maryland in 1694.
In 1636, many people from Roxbury settled down in a place on the banks of the Connecticut river. They named this place Woodstock after Oxford. The Dutch used this place as a trading post. Later, in 1749, a separate colony of Connecticut was formed.
In 1636, Roger Williams and a number of other people left the Massachusetts Bay colony. They wanted to be rid of the religious restrictions in Massachusetts Bay and desired to have the freedom to worship in their own way. In 1663, Rhode Island became a separate colony with the consent of King Charles II.
In 1609, Henry Hudson, along with many Spaniards and Portuguese, explored the coastline of Delaware. Later, in 1631, a Dutch trading company was established on this coastline. However, native Indians set their buildings on fire and no one survived this attack. Finally, in 1638, the Swedes formed the first permanent settlement of Delaware. Delaware was a Swedish colony until the Dutch governor, Peter Stuyvesant, brought it under Dutch rule in 1655. Sir Robert Carr established British rule over Delaware in 1664. Interestingly, the colony of Delaware was never 'legally' a colony, but has always been considered so.
Sir Walter was the first Englishman who came to this tribal region located between the British colony of Virginia and the Spanish colony of Florida. Three tribes, viz. Iroquoian, Siouan and Algonquian lived in this territory before the British arrived. The colonization of North Carolina started in the 1650s. The province of Carolina was split into the North and South halves in 1712.
Even after being declared an independent province, South Carolina continued to be ruled by the same Lords Proprietors who ruled North Carolina. The colonists revolted against the Proprietors and South Carolina became a royal colony in 1720. Nine years later, the British government bought out seven of eight Lords Proprietors and both the Carolinas came under the rule of the Crown. The plantations in South Carolina closely resembled the plantations in West Indies.
In the 16th century, Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano first came to New Jersey, though he didn't set up a permanent establishment. The Dutch took over New Jersey when they lost New Amsterdam. The Dutch and the Swedes surrendered their lands in the New Jersey region to the British in 1664. As was so often the case, the British anglicized the name of the territory. This territory was divided into two halves: one under the supervision of Sir George Carteret and the other under Lord John Berkeley.
In 1682, King Charles II gave William Penn a part of the land between Maryland and New York because he owed a debt to Penn's father. Penn also planned and brought about the construction of the city of Philadelphia. In 1681, William Markham became the Governor of Pennsylvania. Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Paine, two of the most illustrious figures in the American Revolution, were citizens of Pennsylvania.
The southernmost British colony in America was Georgia, named after King George II. The province of Georgia was founded to act as a buffer against Spanish expansion from Florida. James Oglethorpe was the founder of this colony. He was granted permission by King George II in 1732. Oglethorpe wanted to provide deserved land to the 'worthy poor' from England. He made Georgia a slavery-free state. Since Indians were overwhelmingly influential in Georgia, Oglethorpe made truce with the locals, ensuring their cooperation.