What Are Cells?
By Garrett Rogers
Why are cells important and what do they do?
There is a Cell Theory? What Is It?
- All living organisms are made of cells
- Cells come only from other living cells
- Cells carry out the basic functions that are needed to support life
This theory was made due to multiple scientific discoveries. It says what cells are and what they do in a nutshell.
What do cells create and what size are they?
- There is a Cell, the basic unit
- Then there is tissue (the cells connect)
- Next, there is a organ (The tissue connects)
- Fourth, There is an organ system (The organs work together)
- Finally, there is the organism (The organism is the most complex because everything is connected and works together)
The cell is the smallest part of that system and that is a good idea of how small a cell is. You need a microscope to see the cells.
Animal Cells: A Eukaryotic Cell
- Cell Membrane: The cell membrane is
Eukaryotic vs Prokaryotic, Round 1
Prokaryotic cells: A prokaryotic cell is a cell that does not have a Membrane-Bound Nucleus. That means that the DNA is not in the nucleus, it is just floating around inside of the cell. Like the Eukaryotic cell, Prokaryotic cells is a group of cells including: Bacteria cells and Archaea Bacteria cells.
Animal Cell Organelles: Functions and Organelles
- Nucleus: The nucleus is like the control center of the cell. It contains the DNA and also controls the other parts of the cell
- Mitochondria: This is what makes the energy (ATP) in the cell. This organelle creates the energy and releases it for the organism to use.
- Vacuole: This is the storage room in the cell. The vacuole is the part of the cell that contains water and nutrients for the cell. Unlike a plant cell, the vacuole is a small organelle while the plant's vacuole is very large.
More Animal Organelles and Functions
- Cell Membrane: The cell membrane is like the Security guard of the cell. It is not a Cell wall (like some people think). The cell membrane lets certain things into the cell and releases toxins out of the cell (CO2)
- Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): The endoplasmic reticulum is like the highway of a cell. The energy that was packaged by the Golgi apparatus. The packaged energy slides around the ER.
- Cytoplasm: The cytoplasm is a jello like substance that suspends the organelles. Unlike what most people think, that the cytoplasm is a liquid, the cytoplasm is a liquid like solid. If it was a liquid, then the organelles would be damaged due to the fact that they would be flying around the cell.
The Final Organelle Countdown
There are three more organelles that are a part of the animal cell:
- Golgi Apparatus: The Golgi apparatus packages the ATP (energy) that is sent to different parts of the organism. It works with the mitochondria and the ER to get ATP to its designated area.
- Ribosomes: Ribosomes are the factories. They are the tiny little organelles that get the information from the nucleus to make a nutrient. That nutrient is protein, and organisms need protein to live.
- Lysosomes: The lysosomes are like the recycling stations of the cell. They are the ones that pick up after the other organelle's mess. They take in waste and detoxify it to clean the cell.
Plant Cell Organelles and their functions
What are the Organelles that are specifically for a plant cell?
- Cell Wall: No, a cell wall is not the same as a cell membrane (even though plants have that too!). A cell wall is like the walls, floor, and roof of a house. These three parts keep a house's shape. The cell wall keeps the shape of a plant cell. An animal cell looks like an unorganized blob while the plant cell looks like a rectangular prism. It has shape.
- Chloroplast: The chloroplast is what helps plants do photosynthesis. The chloroplast takes in energy from the sun with CO2 (carbon dioxide) and makes food for the plant. But unlike the animal cell which creates carbon dioxide, the plant makes oxygen. We breathe in the oxygen and release the carbon dioxide because it is poisonous to our cells.
- Vacuole: Yes, there is an animal cell vacuole but this one is different. Unlike the animal cell which has multiple tiny vacuoles, the plant cell has one very large vacuole. It takes in and stores nutrients and water that the cell may need.
Well, how do cells make and release energy and oxygen and carbon dioxide?
- The chemical equation for cellular respiration: C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP (Energy)
- Chemical Equation for Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP (energy) ---> C6 H12 O6 + 6O2