By: Olivia Wolfe & Kelsey Mullen

What are types of encoding & factors that impact them?

Encoding in Short Term Memory

You encode in STM phonologically or by how it sounds.

So, you may remember an phone number that someone told you, but only for a few minutes.

Inforamtion may get mixed up because it sounds similar

How is the material stored?

  • some material stored in visual form, some on the basis of meaning
  • memory for images is better than words
  • words are usually only stored phonologcally

Dual Encoding

is why it is sometimes helpful to form a mental picture of something you are trying to learn

Rote Rehearsal

Repeating information over and over and aover to remember it.

Example: Studying vocab words and saying them over and over to remember them.


Grouping information together with imformation already known to remeber it easier.
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Encoding in Long Term Memory

Coded by nonverbal images

Shapes, sounds, smells, tastes, etc.
Codes in terms of meaning

We usually just remember the meaning of something

Not exact words

Cocktail party theory

This theory explains how we are able to focus on what one person is saying even though we are surrounded by other conversations.

Things that impact encoding:

  • Forgetting
  • Brain damage
  • Learning new info
  • Repetition
  • Change in routine/stimulus
  • Recovered memories

What are retrieval cues and what factors interfere with them?

retreival cues

Retreival cues are stimuli that help you recall a certain memory.
Retreival cues can be:

  • smells
  • sounds
  • visuals
  • tastes

For example: the smell of fresh baked cookies reminds you of your grandmother's house.

There are many factors that can make remembering information difficult.

Learning one thing can interfere with the learning of another.

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Retroactive interference

New information interferes with material already in long-term memory.
For example: Finding it difficult to memorize a new phone number after having the same one for many eyars.

Proactive interference

Information already in memory interferes with new material being learned.
For example: You always park in the same spot at work. One day you have to park in a new spot and have a hard time remembering where you parked.

the more disimilar something is from other things you've already learned the less likely it is to interfere with those things.