Juan Bautista de Toledo

Renaissance Smore Project


Juan Bautista de Toledo was born in either Madrid or Toledo, Spain. It is unknown when he was born, but he died on May 19, 1567. He was trained in the architectural styles of Italy and most likely spent a large portion of his life there. Otherwise, he would have spent his life in Spain, as an architect for King Philip II. The Renaissance "-ism" that would most likely describe this architect is humanism because many of his works focus on being efficient and performing their intended functions well, with aesthetics being slightly less important.


Juan Bautista de Toledo's only known patron was King Philip II, as he worked on significant projects such as the El Escorial in Madrid. While he almost certainly had other patrons that supported his career, it is unknown who they were.

El Escorial

A huge complex planned out by Juan Bautista de Toledo in Madrid, Spain, 1562. The complex was built for King Philip II, who was the architect's employer and patron. The king wanted a mausoleum for his father, Charles V, a large church, a Jeronymite monastery, and a palace for himself and his court. Juan Bautista de Toledo used his Italian training to make the buildings contrast from the Islamic style used in Spain at the time, which is what made this project so significant. I find it interesting for this very reason; that the architect dared to use a style so different than those usually used by others.


Creator : Juan Bautista de Toledo, Spanish, d.1567
Creator : Juan de Herrera, Spanish, ca. 1530-1597
Creator :
Title : El Escorial (Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo): exterior, S. facade, view from Southwest
Date : ca. 1563-1584
ARTstor : AIC_270035
URL : http://library.artstor.org/library/secure/ViewImages?id=8DlKaFgjLTQwKg%3D%3D

Creator : Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Title : Saint Peter's Square, Colonnade, with view of Basilica (Piazza Obliqua)
Date : 1656-57; facade of St. Peter's: 1546-64, 1606-12
ARTstor : SCALA_ARCHIVES_10310841470
URL : http://library.artstor.org/library/secure/ViewImages?id=4iFCeTg4NCciJy8laCt2KngqXXgjcVh5eiE%3D

García, Luis. Monastario De Las Descalzas Reales. Digital image. Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 5 Sept. 2009. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/49/Monasterio_de_las_Descalzas_Reales_%28Madrid%29_07.jpg>.

"Juan Bautista de Toledo." International Dictionary of Architects and Architecture. Gale, 1993. Biography in Context. Web. 14 Nov. 2013.