Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

By: Nicole Hill

Prevention and Causes

There is a vaccine to help prevent a few strands of the virus that lead to cervical cancer. This is best taken before sexual activity begins. If one does get HPV, they get it by skin to skin contact, cut or abrasion on the outermost layer of the skin, or sexual contact.

How virus replicates and symptoms

HPV is lysogenic, and can go a long time before showing symptoms, which is usually only genital warts. The Lysogenic cycle starts when the virus attaches to the host cell and injects its DNA. The DNA then circularizes and eithers enters the lysogenic cycle. The DNA integrates within the bacterial chromosome by recombination, and then becoming a prophage. The cells continues reproducing normally with the virus DNA, and at any point the virus will go into the lytic cycle.

Immune cells involved in Immune Response

The immune response are the lymph nodes draining and is responded by macrophages and langerhans which are antigen- presenting immune cells. B and T cells are present in the immune response. T cells are natural killer cells and kill non-self viruses or infected cells. B cells use memory to make antibodies against HPV. HPV cannot be completely eliminated but your cells can kill some infected cells.


There is no actual cure but there is treatment. The treatment is generally used to treat the only symptom. They remove the warts by adding Podofilox, Trichloroacetic acid, or Imiquimod to the affected area.