The Respiratory system
The function of it and why its important
The respiratory system (or ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism. The respiratory system is involved in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and the environment.
Description of the gas exchange
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide moving throughout the body
2 major disorders that occur within this system
The 2nd main one is Emphysema. Emphysema results in the destruction of the alveolar walls. Many individuals have both bronchitis and emphysema, which are often referred to as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Chronic inflammation of the bronchioles, usually caused by cigarette smoke or air pollution, probably initiates emphysema. Narrowing of the bronchioles restricts air movement, and air tends to be retained in the lungs. Coughing to remove accumulated mucus increases pressure in the alveoli, resulting in rupture and destruction of alveolar walls. Loss of alveolar walls has two important consequences. The respiratory membrane has a decrease surface area, which decreases gas exchange, and loss of elastic fibers decrease the ability of the lungs to recoil and expel air. Symptoms of emphysema include shortness of breath and enlargement of the thoracic cavity. Treatment involves removing sources of irritants (for example, stopping smoking), promoting the removal of bronchial secretions, retraining people to breathe so that expiration of air is maximized, and using antibiotics to prevent infections. The progress of emphysema can be slowed, but there is no cure.