Rocks

By: Chilakamarri, Sumedh

The Rock Cycle

The Rock Cycle was founded by James Hutton (1726-1797). The Rock Cycle is the geological transition that continually changes the type of Rock. Igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are 3 classifications scientist have divided up. The types of rocks change based on the forces acted. The forces can be erosion, weathering, compacting, pressurizing, heated melted, and many more. The Rock Cycle is never created or destroyed. The process is like recycling.

Sedimentary-Sandstone

Sandstones are classified by scientists as sedimentary rocks. Most Sandstone classification is based on it's composition. Sandstones have 4 components called matrix, cement, pores, and framework. The sandstone rock is composed of many miniature sand grains formed together. Sandstone tends to be rough and deformed because of the compaction of the sand particles over many years.

Sandstone Formation

Sandstone forms from the heat and pressure compacting sand grains over many years. The sediments or sand grains build up with heat and pressure to make Sandstone. Sandstone usually begin forming in the bottom of sand stacks. The pressure and heat also builds up layers in the sand causing the Sandstones to form later in the process.

Sandstone location

Sandstones are mainly found in areas near sand. Sandstones can almost form in any type of environment from freezing temperatures to extremly hot temperatures like in deserts.

Sandstone is mainly found in the deserted areas like in western America, and center of Africa(near Sahara Desert).

Metamorphic-Marble

Marble is classified as a metamorphic rock. Marble is usually made up of the metamorphism of limestone or dolomite rock. This causes the grains to combine forming large crystals in the rock. Marble is just made up of small crystals. Marble contains no fossils and can range from being pure white to black.

Marble Formation

Marble forms from the metamorphism of limestone or dolomite rock. Limestone and dolomite rock undergo tons of heat and pressure causing them to soften and recrystallize into marble where mineral changes occurred. Marble is mainly composed of calcium and dolomite because of the process limestone and dolomite rock go through.

Marble Location

Marble is mainly found in the mountainous regions all over the world. So the mountainous region includes: Western United States, India, China, Nepal, And other mountainous places.

Igneous-Pegmatite

Pegmatite is classified as an igneous rock. Pegmatite is the defined as the most extreme igneous rock because it forms during the final stage of a magma's crystallization. Pegmatite is mainly composed of large crystalls, quartz, feldspar and mica that formed during the process. Pegmatite is an intrusive rock which means it forms below the earths surface. Pegmatite also contains many rare minerals that you would not find in other igneous rocks.

Pegmatite Formation

Pegmatite forms when magma's crystallization melts significant amounts of water, or other types of fluids such as chlorine. The magma's crystallization grows more concentrated as the delay of the water separating continues. The overabundance of packets of water separates it from the magma. The packets of water is rich in dissolved ions. The ions move freely in the water than in the melt which alows them to grow crystalls. The crystalls make up the the rock, Pegmatite.

Pegmatite location

Pegmatite is usually found mostly in the cores of mountain chains, near volcanoes or in almost any terrains. The best place to find the rock is in the coasts of the north american continent, southeastern part of south america, near india, china, and nepal, western europe, northern antarctica, and many more.