American society and government

By: Victoria Schupp

Pure Food & Drug Act (political)

Preventing the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous or deleterious foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes.
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Monopoly (economic)

The extreme case in capitalism. It is characterized by a lack of competition, which can mean higher prices and inferior products.
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Pendleton Act (social/cultural)

Approved on January 16, 1882. It established a merit-based system of selecting government officials and supervising their work. It ended patronage and the spoils system by using merit on tests for civil service jobs.
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Angel Island (political)

  • San Francisco
  • Asian immigrants
  • 2 week average
  • Angel island poem
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Pull Factors For America (economic)

1. Lots of Arable land 4. Chance to start over
2. Employment opportunities 5. Educational opportunities
& higher wages
3. Political stability 6. Religious freedom
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Tenement Housing (social/cultural)

A low cost apartment that often has poor standards of sanitation, safety, and comfort. A typical tenement building had five to seven stories (25 feet wide and 100 feet long). By 1900, more than 80,000 tenements had been built in New York City. They housed a population of 2.3 million people, a full two-thirds of the city's population of around 3.4 million.

Political Machines (political)

Organizations that provided social services and jobs in exchange for votes. They were run by a Party Boss. They controlled the activities of political parties in the city. The ward bosses, precinct captains, and the city boss worked for their candidates being elected and to make sure that city government worked to their advantage.
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Subway System

On Thursday afternoon, October 27, 1904, the mayor of New York City, George B. McClellan, officially opened the New York subway system. The first subway train left City Hall station with the mayor at the controls, and 26 minutes later arrived at 145th Street. The subway opened to the general public at 7 p.m. that evening, and before the night was over, 150,000 passengers had ridden the trains through the underground tunnels.
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Public Services

The widespread provision of public services in developed countries usually began in the late nineteenth century, often with the municipal development of gas and water services. Later, governments began to provide other services such as electricity and healthcare. In most developed countries such services are still provided by local or national government, the biggest exceptions being the U.S. and the UK, where private provision is more significant.
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Woman's Suffrage Movement

On election day in 1920, millions of American women excised their right to vote for the first time. It took activists and reformers nearly 100 years to win that right. Disagreements over strategy threatened to cripple the movement more than once. On August 26,1920, the 19th Amendment to the Constitution was finally ratified, enfranchising all American women and declaring for the first time that they, like men, deserve all the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.

Graduated Income Tax (economic)

People with lower income pay a lower percentage of that income in tax than those with higher income.
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Child Labor Act (social/cultural)

Although children had been servants and apprentices throughout most of human history, child labor reached new extremes during the Industrial Revolution. Children often worked long hours in dangerous factory conditions for little money. Children were useful as laborers because their size allowed them to move in small spaces in factories or mines where adults couldn't fit, children were easier to manage and control and perhaps most importantly, children could be paid less then adults.
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Yellow Journalism (political)

Style of Journalism that emphasized sensationalism and exaggeration over facts. They would not just relay the facts, they would twist them to make them more sensational. It was a creation of the newspaper war between two editor/owners.
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Panama Canal (economic)

Panama belonged to Colombia, in order to secure rights to the canal zone. The United States supported the Panama rebellion to break free from Colombian rule. A canal would shorten the time and distance that ships would travel from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans, eliminating the long sea voyage around South America.
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Dollar Diplomacy (social/cultural)

The effort of the United States to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries. Encouraged U.S. investment in South and Central America, the Caribbean, and the Far East. Government officials were used to promote the sale of U.S. products overseas. U.S. military as an economic tool. Banks encouraged to rescue debt-ridden nations.
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League of Nations (political)

The League of Nations was an international organization, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, created after the First World War to provide a forum for resolving international disputes. Though first proposed by President Woodrow Wilson as part of his Fourteen Points plan for an equitable peace in Europe, the United States never became a member.

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Economic Rivalries (economic)

There were economic conflicts between Germany and Briatin from 1890 onwards. Since 1871 Germany had been experiencing a period of rapid industrialization, and by 1890 the products of the industry were competing with British manufactures everywhere in the globe and German merchant ships threatened British's carrying trade.
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Trench System (social/cultural)

Troops were significantly protected from the enemy's small arms fire and were substantially sheltered from artillery.
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