Chemistry of Life

Maryssa Oliveras

Water and its Characteristics

  • Adhesion: Attraction of substances of a different kind
  • Cohesion: Attraction of substances of the same kind
  • Heat storage: Water that heats more slowly and retains heat for a long time
  • Ionic boding: Transferred electrons
  • Covalent bonding: Shared electrons
  • Hydrogen bonding: Bonding between polar molecules
  • Hydrogen: Weak bond formed between the charged areas of water molecules
  • The Ph number of water is 7

Macromolecules

What are they?

  • Macromolecules are molecules that contains a very large number of atoms
  • Marcomolecules are easier to see then micromolecules
  • They also can contain synthetic polymer or nucleic acids
  • There are four different kind of macromolecules:
  • Lipids, fatty acids, energy source and protiens
  • The protiens in macromolecules are chains (called Polymers) of amino acids folded into blobs with special shapes
  • Examples of protiens are Collagen, Hybogloben, and Cariten
  • The protien Hemogloben also carries oxygen




Carbohydrates

  • Carbohydrates are any large number or organic compounds in foods including sugar, starch and cellulose
  • Carbohydrates contain hydrogen and oxygen
  • They are broken down to release energy
  • Monosaccharide: A kind of sugar that can not be broken down
  • Polysaccharide: A sugar with many other bonded sugars in the molecules
  • Disaccharides: A sugar that contains two monosaccharides
  • Glucose is an example of monosaccharide
  • Cellulose is a common organic molecule




Protiens

  • Proteins are nitrogenous organic compounds that that have macromolecules (and contain carbon). They can make long chains of amino acids and are important to living organisms.
  • Proteins carry oxygen, build tissue, and copies DNA for offspring
  • Each cell has many different proteins
  • They produce enzymes
  • Proteins are also known as molecules
  • A protein molecule depends on its interaction with other molecules.


There are 8 Types of Protiens

  • Hormonal: These proteins are transported through the blood, that are like chemical messengers that take signals from one cell to another. Each hormone affects certain cells in your body,(target cells). An example of a hormonal protein is insulin.

  • Enzymatic: Enzymatic proteins make the metabolism processes go faster, including liver functions, digestion, and turning glycogen to glucose.

  • Structural: These proteins are like fibrous proteins. structural proteins are important parts of your body like the skin.

  • Defensive: These proteins also known as immunoglobulin, are apart of the immune system, keeping diseases away.

  • Storage: Mainly store mineral ions such as potassium in your body. Iron is an ion required to make hemoglobin.

  • Transport: Carry materials to the cells. Hemoglobin carries oxygen to tissues from the lungs. Calbindin (protein) is another transport protein that absorbs the calcium from the intestines

  • Receptor: Receptor proteins control the substances that enter and leave the cells, even water and nutrients. Other receptors activate enzymes.

  • Contractile: Also known as motor proteins, Help with the strength of heart and muscle contractions. These proteins can cause heart damage if they make very bad contractions.


Nucleic Acids

  • Nucleic Acids make DNA, RNA, and ATP.
  • DNA ( deoxyribonucleic acid ) is our genes.
  • RNA ( ribonucleic acid which ) has the instructions for making proteins.
  • ATP ( adenosine triphosphate ) is the energy bank

Lipids

  • Lipids are made from fatty acids that make up cell membranes.
  • Saturated fats : long chains of carbon with bonds filled by hydrogen and looks like a straight chain at room temperature.
  • Unsaturated fat: double bond which cause a connection in the chain that does not allow the fat to become solid

Enzymes

Activation Energy of energy that is given to make the reaction start.


If the temperature is high, the reactions happen faster since the atoms are moving quicker. The pH affects the enzyme. The active sites are only active in a certain parts

The Chemistry of Water
Enzymes: Mr. W's Enzyme Song
Biological Molecules - You Are What You Eat: Crash Course Biology #3