The collection of physical parts installed both internally and explicitly is called the computer hardware or also can be called the component.
This is a labelled diagram of all the components inside a computer.
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Alan Turing was an English mathematician, wartime code-breaker and pioneer of computer science.

He was selected to work at Bletchley park, here his job was to decipher the messages the Germans were sending using Enigma. Within weeks of arriving there he had invented a machine that could break any Engima-coded message. Unknown to the American's and a secret to everyone out of the MI6 Britain had been deciphering messages to and from German U-boat fleets since the summer of 1940.

This machine required just the knowledge of the Enigma hardware and a plain text "crib" of around 20 characters likely to be in the message, inferred using facts such as the weather report and key dates such as Hitler's birthday and phrases used,"Hail Hitler".

In 1952 was found guilty for 'indecent' homosexual acts when it was illegal at this time. He was prosecuted and accepted oestrogen injections(a hormonal treatment) as an alternative to a prison sentence.

Turing died of cyanide poisoning in a suicide just a couple of years later.

Queen Elizabeth pardons Alan Turing of 'gross indecency' conviction in 2013.

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Apple logo history.

Alan Turing supposedly ended his life by biting into an apple laced with cyanide. And so, the story goes, when two Stanford entrepreneurs were looking for a logo for their brand new computer company, they remembered Turing and his contribution to their field.