Birth to age 2


  • Refers to "the way people are".
  • "Stable individual differences in quality and intensity".
  • "Activity level, attention and emotional self-regulation".
  • Examples;
  • Activity level: time a child spends in active versus quiet modes.
  • Intensity of reaction: in terms of being more or less loud or forceful.


  • Emotional bond between child and parent.
  • Become attached to people who care for them.
  • Able to control negative emotions in stressful situations.
  • More confident about exploring the world around them.

12-24 Months

  • Initiate play activities.
  • Recognize their own image in the mirror.
  • Act pleased when the accomplish something.
  • Play independently, often imitating adult actions.
  • Express negative emotions including anger and frustration.
  • Becomes self-assertive and may direct actions of others