The Circulatory, Respiratory System

By:Jennifer Cholula

The Function of the Circulatory System

The Human Circulatory System transports the blood and oxygen to the lungs. The Heart pumps blood throughout the whole body.The Human heart is about the size of a clenched fist. It contains four chambers: 2 atria and 2 ventricles Oxygen- poor blood goes to the right atrium through a major vein called the vena cava.

Structure and Function of Arteries,Capillaries, and Veins.

Arteries: Are the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart, are usually highly oxygenated.They have to be the most thickest layer of tunica since there's higher blood pressure.

Veins:Blood pressure is low and walls are thinner than arteries but has the heaviest wall layer.

Capillaries:They are the link between arteries and veins,walls are very thin.

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Blood: It's made out of blood cells and Plasma, Erythrocytes,leukocytes and platelets.

Plasma:is a clear extracellular fluid

Erythrocytes: are also known as red blood cells

Leukocytes: Are also known as white blood cells

Platelets: are the protection of the blood cells.

Major Disorders

-Arteriosclerosis:Where fatty deposits in the arteries causes the walls. Causes too much fat, cholesterol, and calcium. This can restrict the blood flow or even stop it which might cause a heart attack or stroke.

-High Blood pressure: Which causes the heart to work harder than what it should. Which can lead to a heart attack or stroke.

Respiratory System


The human respiratory system is a series of organs responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide. The primary organs of the respiratory system are lungs, which carry out this exchange of gases as we breathe. Red blood cells collect the oxygen from the lungs and carry it to the parts of the body where it is needed, During the process, the red blood cells collect the carbon dioxide and transport it back to the lungs, where it leaves the body when we exhale.


As we breathe, oxygen enters the nose or mouth and passes the sinuses, which are hollow spaces in the skull. Sinuses help regulate the temperature and humidity of the air we breathe.

The trachea, also called the windpipe, filters the air that is inhaled, according to the American Lung Association. It branches into the bronchi, which are two tubes that carry air into each lung. The bronchial tubes are lined with tiny hairs called cilia. Cilia move back and forth, carrying mucus up and out. Mucus, a sticky fluid, collects dust, germs and other matter that has invaded the lungs. We expel mucus when we sneeze, cough, spit or swallow.

The bronchial tubes lead to the lobes of the lungs. The right lung has three lobes; the left lung has two. Lobes are filled with small, spongy sacs called alveoli, and this is where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs.

The alveolar walls are extremely thin (about 0.2 micrometers). These walls are composed of a single layer of tissues called epithelial cells and tiny blood vessels called pulmonary capillaries.

Blood passes through the capillaries. The pulmonary artery carries blood containing carbon dioxide to the air sacs, where the gas moves from the blood to the air. Oxygenated blood goes to the heart through the pulmonary vein, and the heart pumps it throughout the body.

The diaphragm, a dome-shaped muscle at the bottom of the lungs, controls breathing and separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. When a breath it taken, it flattens out and pulls forward, making more space for the lungs. During exhalation, the diaphragm expands and forces air out.

Major Disorders

Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the lung airways that causes coughing, wheezing, chest tightness or shortness of breath. These signs and symptoms may be worse when a person is exposed to their triggers, which can include air pollution, tobacco smoke, factory fumes, cleaning solvents, infections, pollens, foods, cold air, exercise, chemicals and medications.

Lung cancer is often associated with smoking, but the disease can affect non-smokers as well. Every year, about 16,000 to 24,000 Americans die of lung cancer, even though they have never smoked. Like all cancers, lung cancer is caused by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells.

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