Menstrual Cycle

By: Skyra Rash

What is the Menstrual Cycle?

Recurring series of changes that take place in the ovaries, uterus and accessory sexual structures during menstruation

4 Stages of the Menstrual Cycle

1. Follicle Stage: is the phase during which follicles in the ovary mature and the egg gets ready to released. It ends with ovulation. The main hormone controlling this stage is estradiol.

2. Ovulation stage: a mature ovarian follicle discharges an egg ovum, It is during this process that the egg travels down the fallopian tube where it may be met by a sperm and become fertilized.

3. Corpus Luteum Stage: develops from an ovarian follicle during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or oestrous cycle, following the release of a secondary oocyte from the follicle during ovulation.

4.Menstruation Stage: he uterus sheds its inner lining of soft tissue and blood vessels which exits the body from the vagina in the form of menstrual fluid, Blood loss of 10 ml to 80 ml is considered normal, You may experience abdominal cramps. These cramps are caused by the contraction of the uterine and the abdominal muscles to expel the menstrual fluid.


Amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual bleeding and may be primary or secondary.

Symptoms: Breast size changes, weight gain or weight loss, discharge from the breast or change in breast size, acne and increased hair growth in a male pattern,vaginal dryness,voice changes

Why does it happen ? Amenorrhea happens because of natural reasons like pregnancy, breast-feeding, menopause


Dysmenorrhea is painful menstruation, typically involving abdominal cramps.

Symptoms: pains in the lower back, thighs and hips and server pain because a lot of pressure is pushing down in the abdominal area.

Why does this happen? Dysmenorrhea happens because of the all the hormones that are in our body.

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) & Menopause

Premenstrual Syndrome: A group of symptoms that occur in women, typically between ovulation and a period. Symptoms: appetite changes, excessive hunger, fatigue, or loss of appetite,anxiety or general discontent, acne, depression, headache, insomnia, irritability, lack of concentration, moodiness, painful menstruation, or weight gain.

Menopause: A natural decline in reproductive hormones when a woman reaches her 40s or 50s.

Symptoms: fatigue, night sweats, osteoporosis, hot flashes, or sweating, early awakening or insomnia, absence of menstruation or irregular menstruation, anxiety, dry skin, irritability, moodiness, reduced sex drive, or vaginal dryness