Chief Justice John Marshall
Supreme Court Cases Under John Marshall 1801-1835
Marbury Vs. Madison
This case was between James Madison the secretary of state at the time, and William Marbury who was the person coming in to take the job or Mr. Madison. One of the most influential Supreme court cases in history was the case of Marbury Vs. Madison. In 1803, this happened because it established the idea of judicial review. the reasoning for such a trial was because the president wanted to keep his ideas of federalism in the white house, senate and house of representatives.
Fletcher Vs. Peck
In 1810, the supreme court case of John Peck and Robert Fletcher was very influential because it was the first time the supreme court struck down a state law on constitutional grounds. It was ruled that the contract clause had been violated. this made people see that the supreme court would actually use its judicial review that it had earned from the Maurbury Vs. Madison case. Also it showed that the court was not going to shy away from anyone from the Secretary of state to a very large land dispute.
Martin Vs. Hunters
In 1816, Lord Fairfax held land in Virginia. He was a Loyalist and fled to England during the Revolution. He died in 1781 and left the land to his nephew, Denny Martin, who was a British subject. The following year, the Virginia legislature voided the original land grant and transferred the land back to Virginia. Virginia granted a portion of this land to David Hunter. The Jay Treaty seemed to make clear that Lord Fairfax was entitled to the property. The Supreme Court declared that Fairfax was so entitled, but the Virginia courts, where the suit arose, refused to follow the Supreme Court's decision. The Court rejected the claim that Virginia and the national government were equal sovereigns. Reasoning from the Constitution, Justice Story affirmed the Court's power to override state courts to secure a uniform system of law and to fulfill the mandate of the Supremacy Clause. Decision: 6 votes for Martin, 0 vote(s) against him. Martin v. Hunter's Lessee, stands alongside of Marbury v. Madison (1803) in shaping the contours of the federal judiciary and establishing the Supreme Court as the ultimate arbiter of federal law.
Cohen's Vs. Virginia
In 1821,In a unanimous decision, the Court said that the Supreme Court had the power to review state criminal acts. Chief Justice Marshall wrote that the Court was going to hear all cases that had been about constitutional questions and that this jurisdiction was not dependent on the identity of the parties in the cases. Marshall argued that state laws and constitutions, when repugnant to the Constitution and federal laws, were void. After establishing the Court's jurisdiction, Marshall declared the lottery ordinance a local matter and concluded that the Virginia court was correct to fine the Cohens brothers for violating Virginia law.
Dartmouth College Vs. Woodward and McCulloch (or McCullogh) Vs. Maryland
In 1819, the amount of nationalism was decreasing. the amount of sectionalism. this case show'd the power that the the court was so over powering. this was very influential because, showed that congress would actually use the elastic clause. The final ruling was that the Bank of The United States was Constitutional and that the Maryland tax was very unconstitutional.