Learn how plants grow, adapt and reproduce

Here is your goal:

I will be able to identify the structures in plants (leaves, roots, flowers, stem, bark, wood) that are responsible for food production, support, water transport, reproduction, growth, and protection.

Plant Structures

Leaves, roots, flowers, stem, bark, and wood

Each of the above structures plays a critical role in the life of a plant. Visit the below website to learn more about the role that each plays. For now, move through case 1 only. Please take notes in your science notebook as you go. Remember: your focus is on the following structures and how they help plants: leaves, roots, flowers, stem, bark, and wood.

Food Production - Photosynthesis

What is Photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis may sound like a big word, but it's actually pretty simple. You can divide it into two parts: "Photo" is the Greek word for "Light," and "synthesis," is the Greek word for "putting together," which explains what photosynthesis is. It is using light to put things together. You may have noticed that all animals and humans eat food, but plants don't eat anything. Photosynthesis is how plants eat. They use this process to make their own food. Since they don't have to move around to find food, plants stay in one place, since they can make their food anywhere as long as they have three things.

The three things are Carbon Dioxide, Water, and Light. You have probably heard of Carbon dioxide. It is a chemical that is in the air. Every time you breathe in, you breath in a bunch of chemicals in the air, including oxygen and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is also one of the chemicals that causes global warming. But we'll get to that in a little bit. Here's what photosynthesis looks like:

Carbon Dioxide + Water + Light ----> Sugar + Oxygen

Plants breathe, just like us. They even have little openings that can look like mouths, but they are too small for us to see without a microscope. When we breathe in, we want to breath in oxygen. Plants want to breathe in Carbon Dioxide. Plants also drink. This is why you need to water plants or they will die. They use their roots to suck water up into their bodies, and their little mouths to breath in the carbon dioxide. Once they have both of these things, all they need is light. Leaves are made up of a bunch of tiny cells, where this happens. Inside the cells are tiny little things called chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are what makes leaves green, and they are also what takes the carbon dioxide, the water, and the light, and turns them into sugar and oxygen.

The sugar is then used by the plants for food, and the oxygen is breathed out into the atmosphere. This process as a whole is "photosynthesis.

Things You Need to Know About Photosynthesis

  • This happens to EVERY plant, and to some bacteria and algae, too. Without photosynthesis, plants wouldn't exist.
  • Humans and animals do the exact opposite of photosynthesis. They breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. This means that we give plants more carbon dioxide, and they give us more oxygen. Without plants we wouldn't be able to survive, but there is enough carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that plants would still exist without us!
  • Before there was photosynthesis, there wasn't much oxygen in our atmosphere. So before plants evolved the ability to turn water and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen, there was no way for plants and animals to exist. Before photosynthesis, bacteria and other living things used other chemicals to make their food. But when photosynthesis started, it worked really well, so organisms (living things) that had photosynthesis thrived and evolved into plants and trees. As more plants grew across the planet, more and more oxygen went into the atmosphere, meaning that animals were able to start evolving! We would never have existed without photosynthesis.
  • The atmosphere is full of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, meaning that if it is in the atmosphere, it holds heat close to the earth, which makes our planet warm. If we didn't have carbon dioxide, we wouldn't be a warm planet, we would be cold like the moon. If we had too much carbon dioxide, we would be like Venus, which is a really hot planet. Plants keep our atmosphere from getting too much carbon dioxide and heating up by turning a lot of it into oxygen.

This information was all taken directly from the website below:

Water Transport in Plants

Examine the diagram below. How is water transported throughout a plant?
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Have you ever wondered how some flowers grow along the side of the road when clearly, no one has planted them there? We all know that plants can grow when a seed is planted in favorable conditions and flourishes. But where do seeds come from? Watch this short YouTube video so that you can begin to understand this little miracle.
Flower Reproduction

Parts of a Plant

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