Muscular System

By:Cody Everton

Tissue Types

In humans, there are four basic types of tissue: epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissue. There may be various sub-tissues within each of the primary tissues. Epithelial tissue covers the body surface and forms the lining for most internal cavities.

Accessory Organs

The salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are not part of the digestive tract, but they have a role in digestive activities and are considered accessory organs.

Energy Forms Used in The Body

In the body, thermal energy helps us to maintain a constant body temperature, mechanical energy helps us to move, and electrical energy sends nerve impulses and fires signals to and from our brains. Energy is stored in foods and in the body as chemical energy.

Other Interesting Facts (Synesthesia)

When people talk about sensation, most of the time they’re referring to the five primary senses — vision, hearing, taste, touch, and smell. But the notion of a “sixth sense” may be more than the stuff of science fiction.

Vision combines senses for both light and color, and there is growing evidence that your proprioception — the ability to detect your relative position in space — may rely on your body’s ability to detect magnetic fields in much the same way migrating birds do. Blind people have been known to develop echolocation, or the ability to hear subtle changes in sound bouncing back from otherwise unseen objects. And stress sometimes causes people to experience time dilation.

In fact, your senses are more subjective than you may like to admit. Things get even more complex when you consider the condition known as synesthesia, in which a person can “hear” color or “see” sound.

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Types of Movement

  • abduction is movement away from the center, as spreading the toes or fingers apart.


  • Adduction is movement toward the midline of the body, as bringing the fingers and toes together. (Adduction and abduction always refer to movements of the appendicular skeleton).


  • Angular motion is comprised of flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction. Each is based on reference to a certain anatomical position.


  • Circumduction is a special type of angular motion, described as making circular movements as moving the arm in a loop.


  • Dorsiflexion / Plantar flexion refers to movements of the foot. Dorsiflexion is the movement of the ankle while elevating the sole, as if digging in the heel. Plantar flexion is the opposite movement, extending the ankle and elevating the heel, as if standing on tiptoes.


  • Elevation / Depression occurs when a structure moves in a superior or inferior direction, as the mandible is depressed when the mouth is opened and elevated when the mouth is closed.


  • Extension occurs in the same plane as flexion, except that it increases the angle between articulating elements. Extension reverses the movement of flexion. Hyperextension is a continuation of movement past the anatomical position, which can cause injury.


  • Flexion is movement in the anterior-posterior plane that reduces the angle between the articulating elements as in bringing the head toward the chest; that is, flexing the intervertebral joints of the neck.


  • Gliding occurs when two opposing surfaces slide past each other as between articulating carpals and tarsals and between the clavicles and sternum.


  • Opposition is a special movement of the thumb which enables it to grasp and hold an object.


  • Pronation / Supination refers to the rotation of the distal end of the radius across the anterior surface of the ulna. This rotation moves the wrist and hand from palm-facing-front (supination) to palm-facing-back (pronation).
  • Protraction entails moving a part of the body anteriorly in the horizontal plane, as in jutting the face forward to gain distance at a finish line.


  • Retraction is the reverse movement of protraction as in pulling the jaw back towards the spine.


  • Rotation involves turning the body or a limb around the longitudinal axis, as rotating the arm to screw in a lightbulb.

Definitions of Attachments

Aponeurosis

Definition

broad sheet-like attachment of tendon

example: scalp, abdomen, hands, and feet


Perforating Fibers

Definition

these collagen fibers actually penetrate the bone matrix to form a very strong attachment

Indirect Attachment

Definition

type of attachment which collagen fibers of epimysium become a strong tendon that attaches to periosteum

Direct or Fleshy Attachment

Definition

type of attachment of collagen fibers of epimysium are continous with periosteum (sheath around a bone)