1.1-1.4 Study Guide

1st IPS quiz

Lab Safety

Every Lab:
  • Always wear goggles over your eyes until Mr. Leeds says to put them away.
  • Report all accidents/spills to Mr. Leeds immediately
  • Use common sense

Nurse:
  • ext. 2828

Safety Equipment:

  • Fire extinguisher
  • Fire blanket
  • Eye wash/shower

Chemicals:

  • Never taste chemicals
  • Waft to detect odor
  • Never waft solids or powders
  • Avoid touching chemicals
  • Wash hands with soap and water after lab
  • Flush skin with water for 1 minute and notify Mr. Leeds if chemicals touch your skin

Glass:
  • Hot glass and cold glass look the same
  • Never use chipped or broken glass
  • Tell Mr. Leeds and dispose of broken glass in the proper trash can
  • Never use force to remove or insert glass


Alcohol Burners:

  • Roll up sleeves
  • Put up long hair
  • Never walk away from a lit burner
  • Never point open end of a hot test tube at yourself or someone else
  • Do not look down into a test tube/beaker while it is being heated
  • Make sure burner is capped and flame is out when done


End of Experiment:

  • Clean up area and materials completely! (or you lose points)
  • Make sure the burner is out if used
  • Keep goggles on (over eyes) until Mr. Leeds says to put them away


Reaction in a Bag Lab

Overview:


Multiple chemical substances are combined and they cause many chemical reactions.


  • When Calcium Chloride is combined with a liquid, it produces an exothermic reaction (heat)
  • When Sodium Bicarbonate is combined with a liquid, it produces an endothermic reaction (cold)
  • When Calcium Chloride, Sodium Bicarbonate, and a liquid are combined, they produce a gas
  • Calcium Chloride combined with Phenol Red creates an orange color
  • Sodium Bicarbonate combined with Phenol Red creates a pink color
  • Calcium Chloride causes Sodium Bicarbonate to dissolve


Substances:


Phenol Red


  • Used as a ph indicator
  • below 7 turns yellow
  • above 8 turns pink


Calcium Chloride


  • Calcium and Chloride
  • Acidic
  • Hydrotropic (attracted to/absorbs water)
  • Keeps canned veggies from getting mushy, is an electrolyte in sports drinks, flavors pickles


Sodium Bicarbonate


  • Baking soda
  • Not acidic
  • Used in baking, laundry detergent, and toothpaste


The PH Scale

  • Measures acidity
  • Goes from 0 to 14
  • 0 = acid
  • 7 = neutral
  • 14 = alkaline


Heating Baking Soda Lab

Overview:


Record the reaction that occurs when baking soda is heated


Science:


Where did the condensation at the top of the test tube come from?


  • Baking soda releases gas, which rises up through the test tube and tubing into the bottle
  • The hot gas touches the cooler surface at the top of the glass test tube
  • The gas turns back into liquid
  • The liquid is condensation


Is heated baking soda the same as unheated baking soda?


  • No, they are different substances
  • After the two baking sodas were each mixed with tea, the color of the tea in the two test tubes was different
  • Since the colors were different, something must be different in one of the tubes (heated)


Control group: Unheated test tube

Experimental group: Heated test tube

Indicator: Tea (shows that heated baking soda has changed)

Variable: Something that you try to measure

  • Independent variable causes a change in the dependent variable
  • Independent Variable: Temperature (heat)
  • Dependent Variable: Color of tea

Control Factors: (factors we control during the experiment)


  • Same type of tea
  • Same amount of baking soda
  • Same amount of tea
  • Same stirring time
  • Same size test tube


Experimental Errors:


  • Tiny hole in tubing (won't see the bottle fill with gas)
  • Stopper is not snug (won't see the bottle fill with gas)
  • Stirring rod not clean before you begin (contamination)


Extra Question:


  • The amount of condensation that forms at the top of the heated test tube is less or equal to the amount of baking soda being heated because the condensation comes from the baking soda, which cannot produce more than itself

Volume

Solids:
  • Unit of measurement: cm3 (cubic centimeters)
  • Volume = l x w x h (a x b x c)
  • Standard unit of length = meter (m)
  • 1 centimeter = .01 meter
  • 100 centimeters = 1 meter


Liquids:

  • Use a graduated cylinder to measure volume
  • Always check the intervals or scale
  • Units = millimeters (mL) or cm3
  • read from bottom of meniscus

Single Pan Balance

1. Check that pan is clean and dry


2. Always "zero" balance before each massing

  • Push all riders to zero (left)
  • Use adjustment knob if needed

3. Never switch pans

Box Questions

1. Baking Soda is used in baking because when it's heated, it releases a gas which helps dough/batter to rise.

3. 50 cm3

4. Box A has a greater height or width than box B.

5. The stone has a volume of 7 cm3.

6a. 8 cubes will be needed to build a cube with 2 cm edges.

6b. 27 cubes will be needed to build a cube with 3 cm edges.

6c. Cube A has a volume of 8 cm3. Cube B has a volume of 27 cm3.

7. The 2nd box has the larger volume.

8. The divisions are not equally spaced because the cone is narrower at the bottom than the top. As the surface increases, the depth decreases.

9a. Arrow 1 is at 1.2 cm, and arrow 2 is at 3.8 cm. No, you can't.

9b. Arrow 3 is at 1.62, Arrow 4 is at 2.51, and Arrow 5 is at 4.50. No, you can't.

9c. The positions of the arrows shouldn't be measured to the 0.1 because the arrows aren;t exactly on the millimeter lines.

10a. 0.1 of a cubic centimeter

10b. 0.2 of a cubic centimeter

11a. 4.0 cm3

11b. 1.25 cm3

12. The more information you have about a number, the better. Otherwise, the number may be estimated differently. 12 may be the rounded version of 12.1, and 12.0 may be the rounded version of 12.0

13. If graduated cylinders are taller and narrower, more marks or divisions can fit.