Madison Joyce

Thaddeus Stevens

**Thaddeus was the leader of the Radical Republicans in Congress and he was also the representative of Pennsylvania.

**He was a supporter of Abolishing Slavery and helping draft the 14th Amendment during Reconstruction.

**Stevens an the Republican mollified Andrew Johnson Presidential Reconstruction plan an passed the groundbreaking civl rights legislation and the 14th Amendment over his veto.

Andrew Johnson

**Andrew was the Vice President who Lincoln had chosen him because Lincoln thought that he could help with the reunite the Nation after war, which was known as the "Reconstruction" of the US war.

**When Lincoln was assassinated Johnson later became President April 1865

later on down the road Johnson was impeached because he had violated the Tenure of Office Act.

**When Johnson was President he tried to mimic Lincoln plan so he came up with his own know as the Johnson plan.

14th Amendment

**The 14th Amendment was ratified 1868 of July 9th and was granted with citizenship to all people born in the United States including slaves who were freed.

**The Life Liberty and Property due process of law or deny to anyone within there jurisdiction the equal protection of laws. It also expanded the protection of Civil Rights to all american and was cited in more litigation than any other amendment.

**June 13, 1866 was declared in a certificate of the Secretary of State dated July 28, 1868 to have been ratified by the legislatures of 37 States.

Connecticut, New Hampshire, Tennessee, New Jersey, Oregon, Vermont, Ohio, New York, Kansas, Illinois, West Virginia, Michigan, Minnesota, Maine, Nevada,Indiana, Missouri, Rhode Island, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Nebraska, Iowa, Arkansas, Florida, North Carolina, Louisiana, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Virginia, Mississippi, Texas, Delaware, Maryland, California, and Kentucky.

15th Amendment

**The 15th Amendment granted African American men the right to vote. This was passed by Congress the amendment says>>> "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”

**By 1870 practices were used to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote especially in the South.

**Years of discrimination the Voting Rights Act of 1965 aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state that denied blacks their right to vote under the 15th Amendment.

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