Antarctic Wildlife

By Mara Z & Lily

Antarctic Plants

Moss (Bryophyta)

Description:

Moss is normally known as a fluffy green puff but it can come i many different ways like short and tough or even long and soft.


Habitat:

You can find moss in places such as one hundred millimetres deep in ground or where there is heaps of water.


Interesting Facts:

#In the drenching weather of Antarctica the moss gets wet and slippery making it a perfectly comfortable resting spot for seals.

#about 97-99% of Antactica is covered in ice, which doesn't leave much room for plants, but still, there are two species of higher recorded plants and 350 other species.

Grass (Poaceae)

Description:

Long strings of greenness blowing in the wind looking like unbrushed hair.


Habitat:

Anywhere there is no ice or in rocky hills.


Interesting Facts:

#There are only two types of grass, including Antarctic Hair Grass and Pearlwort. Found on the South Orkney Islands, the South Sheland Island and along the Western Antarctic peninsula.

Pengiuns (Spheniscidae)



Description:

They have webbed feet and black on their back. A white belly with a yellow strip around their neck. They have long flippers for arms and they are birds that don't fly. Babies are more furry for warmth but they don't float.


Habitat:

Penguins normally live around the sea and in a bigger part of Antarctica.


Diet:

Penguins eat fish, krill, squid and shrimp.


Breeding;

Breeding starts in Autumn around April. In May the females start hunting for the babies.


Adaptation:

They survive in the cold by huddling in a group. They have white on their belly that looks like ice so the predators under them think they are ice. They have black on their back so the predators above them think they are a shadow in the deep sea.


Interesting Facts:

#Their are 18 species of penguins in the world.

#penguins are carnivores.

#penguins see clearer under water then on land.

#Emperor penguins and king penguins don't make nest for their babies

Sea Birds (Laridae)

Description:
There are so many birds in Antarctica that look completely different. Some with white feathers and others with brown. they all have different heights weights and speeds.

Habitat:
Sea Birds mainly live around the Sub - Antarctic islands or the Southern Ocean.

Diet:
Because of where they live, Seabirds mainly stick to the diet of fish, squid and crustaceans.

Breeding:
Depending on their specific ecological niche, seabirds vary from each other in lifestyle, diet and behavior. Some species are pelagic. They breed in Antarctic cliffs above the ocean and on the surrounding sub-Antarctic islands, but in winter at sea. Non-pelagic seabirds are mostly coastal, while some species live along the ocean for part of the year and then nest inland near wetlands and lakes.

Adaptation:
* Sea Birds have more feathers relative to their body size than other birds, which give them superior waterproofing and better insulation.
* Most birds have flexible, webbed feet that help them gain speed and sharp claws to help with fishing for food.

Interesting Facts:
# Sea Birds are not like any tropical birds because they have a life span of "20 to 40" years

Seals (Arctocephalus Gazella)

Description;

There are so many different types of seals. So have leather looking coats and some a big ball of fluff. They have big black eyes and long brown whiskers.


Diet:

All seals feed at sea us sonar, they eat krill, fish and squid.


Adaptation:

They are both land and sea animals.


Habitat:

When not breeding seals find a place near the ocean. When breeding there find a rocky, sandy area to stay.


Breeding:

From November to January in Summer, males come to compete for their mate. The mother mates a week after giving birth then leaves to feed at sea.


Interesting Facts:

#Seals are carnivores.

#Seals are mammals.

#Seals evloved from land animals.

#Seals can stay under water for two hours.

#Seals insulate themselves using a think fur coatand a layer of blubber.

Krill (Euphausis Superba)

Description:

They have large black eyes, a bright red shell and long feelers off their mid face. They look like prawns but smaller.


Diet:

Krill are mainly Herbivores, feeding mostly on Phytoplankton but in Winter they have to use other food recourses such as, Algae which grows on the under of the ice.


Habitat:

They live under water and you would normally find them in a big group called a colony.


Adaptation:

Krill stay in a colony, so to bigger predators they look like a bigger, scarier animal.


Breeding:

Female Antarctic Krill lay up to 10,000 eggs at a time, sometimes several times a season.


Interesting Facts:

#They have Vitamin A stored in their eyes

#There are 85 species of Krill

#The average Krill is 16mm in length