All About The Cell

by Judy Hildebrand

What is a Cell?

A cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism. All living things are composed of cells, they are the building blocks of life.

The Types of Cells

  • All living things are composed of two types of cells.
  • A prokaryote cell is a cell which does not have nucleus, like bacteria.
  • A eukaryote cell is a cell which does have a nucleus.
  • Both types of cells have cytoplasms, plasma membranes, chromosomes, and ribosomes.
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The Organelles of a Cell

  • Nucleus- Contains the genetic information, directs protein synthesis and cell reproduction
  • Nucleolus- Assembles Ribosomes, Site of genes for rRNA synthesis
  • Plasma Membrane- Regulates what passes into and out of cell
  • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)- transports and storage
  • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - Creates lipids and fats
  • Golgi Apparatus- Packages proteins for export from the cell; forms secretory vesicles
  • Lysosomes- Digest worn-out organelles and cell debris
  • Mitochondria- Sites of oxidative metabolism; provides ATP for cellular energy
  • Chromosomes- Contain hereditary information
  • Ribosomes- Site of protein synthesis
  • Flagella and Cilia- Motility or moves fluid over surfaces
  • Cytoskeleton- Structural support, cell movement
  • Centrioles- For cellular division and reproduction
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Reproduction In Cells


  • Mitosis is the Reproduction of somatic cells.
  • There are 7 different stages of Mitosis, Interphase, Prophase, Pro-metaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, and Cytokinesis.
  • Mitosis produces two daughter cells.
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  • Meiosis is the reproduction of sex cells.
  • It only occurs in eukaryote cells.
  • During the formation of gametes, the number of chromosomes are reduced by half; they return to the full amount after being fused during fertilization.
  • Meiosis produces four daughter cells.
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