Greece The Golden Age

Ancient Greece

A new Greek civilization, the Classical Age or the Golden Age, began around the eighth century BC. This Classical Greek civilization featured a form of government entirely new to the ancient world. It was neither an empire nor a centralized state but a large number of independent city-states sharing a common language, a common culture, and eventually a common sense of Greek identity. The Greeks came up with the Olympic Games in which all the city-states participated. City-states often cooperated in the area of foreign relations.

Athens and Sparta

Athens is the symbol of freedom, art, and democracy in the conscience of the civilized world in the center of the town there are two hills, the acropolis with the monuments from the age of Pericles and Lycaettus with the picturesque chapel of Ai Gorgis hailed by many people as the cradle of western civilization.

Sparta is a town near the river of Euroreas located in the center of the Peloponnesus in southern Greece. Modern Sparta was founded by the government in 1834. The sparse remains are insignificant for the city of such renown in antiquity the city itself was destroyed by the goths under the king, Alaric in 369 A.D.

Olympics

the Olympic Games were in Olympia and began as a small regional festival in the 11th century dedicated to the God Zeus. During the period of the games a sacred truce was in effect so competitors could go through hostile territories to get to Olympia. The games were held on the second full moon of the summer solstice and was not restricted to athletic events. There were also feasts, competitions between orators, poets, prayers and sacrifices.





Modern philosophy

Socrates' philosophy begins with the belief that he knows nothing and that life is not for attaining riches but a process of knowing oneself. He believed that virtue was the most valuable of all possessions and that the job of a philosopher was to point out to people how little they actually knew. He believed that society should be governed by governor kings, or benevolent dictators, educated and trained from the beginning of life for this purpose. Plato believed in a higher reality of which the material world is just a manifestation. It is said that all philosophy is just a footnote to Plato. His student and then fellow philosopher Aristotle was more of a materialist and he believed in putting everything in categories and was the inventor of logic.


Architecture

Acropolis in Greek means "The Sacred Rock, the high city". All around the world the Acropolis of Athens is known as 'The Acropolis'. There are many Acropolises in Greece but the Acropolis of Athens is the best known. The Acropolis is primarily dedicated to the Goddess Athena. But humans from the prehistoric era have populated the Acropolis and the caves around it. Situated in the middle of Athens, many myths, festivals and important events are connected to the sacred Acropolis.Acropolis rock is built of limestone it is based on the Attica plateau and includes the Likavitos hill, the Philopappos hill, the hill of the Nymphs, and the Pnyx. With a height of about 70 meters and 300 meters long, it is 150 meters wide. Many human inhabitants have made constructions here since the Mycenaean era resulting in the flat top table of the Acropolis. As there was spring water and caves in abundance, the place was perfect for human habitation.