The Middle Ages

By: Shelby Pittman, Mackenzie Sork, & Stephie Teffeteller

The Crusades

-a series of military expeditions from parts of Europe to the eastern coast of the mediterranean; they were pilgrimages as well as military operations
The Crusades - A Horribly Inaccurate Dramatization

The Crusades...1-4

1st official crusade- began with a call to arms by Pope Urban II in 1095 C.E.

-Pope Urban II wanted to unite Europe so he gave his people a common enemy...
“Let us go forth with the Byzantines because then maybe they’ll acknowledge how great I am and get rid of their “not having me as Pope” thing, and while we’re at it, let’s set Jerusalem free!”

Outcome- 1100 C.E., European nobles held Antioch and Jerusalem as Latin Christian kingdoms

Second Crusade

-disaster; lost in Anatolia and at Damascus, the Christians captured Lisbon, but no progress was made in taking the Holy Land

Third Crusade

-European response to the emergence of a new Islamic power (Egyptian Kurd from the West called Saladin) who ended up capturing Jerusalem as a general

-loss of Jerusalem caused Gregory Pope VIII to call for a 3rd Crusade

-King Richard I of England (leader of 3rd crusade) had to call off the fight off early because he couldn’t get any crusaders to help him in taking Egypt first (ultimate goal was to get to Jerusalem)

Fourth Crusade

-35,000 volunteers, but only 11,000 went through with it

-filled with pointless fighting; Byzantine Empire was ruined

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The Crusades conclusion...

Crusades = total failure in establishing Christian Kingdoms in the holy land long-term (region around holy land remained Muslim)

-Crusades remind us that the medieval world was fundamentally different from ours today

-journey of pilgrimage from holy war transformed their faith and their lives

The Reign of Justinian

Justinian became an emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire in 527. His goal was to reestablish the Roman Empire in the entire Mediterranean world. By 552 he accomplished his goal, he restored the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean.

-At this point his Empire consisted of Italy, part of Spain, North Africa, Asia Minor, Palestine, and Syria.

-Just 3 years after his death the Lombards(Germanic People) had conjured most of Italy and the other areas were soon lost.

-Justinian's most influential contribution was his codification of law.

-He eventually created the body of civil law by simplifying legal materials. This code of Roman laws was the basis of imperial law in the Eastern Roman Empire from 537 until 1453. It was used in the west and became a basis for much of the legal system in Europe.

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-Constantinople was the chief center for the exchange of products between the west and the east. they traded highly desired products such as silk from china spices from southeast asia and jewelry and ivory from india, wheat and furs from southern russia and flax and honey balkans.Many goods arrive in constantinople and then shipped to northern europe in the mediterranean area. Silk was the most lucrative product.

-Much of Constantinople's appearance in the early Middle Ages was dominated by a large palace, hundreds of churches, and a huge arena (Hippodrome). This was due to Justinian's program of rebuilding during the 6th century. His greatest achievement was the famous Hagia Sophia-the Church of the Holy Wisdom.

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Threats Faced by the Byzantine Empire

-The internal threats came from incompetent successors in the eleventh century who undid the Byzantine empire’s recently renewed power that Macedonian Dynasty had bestowed upon them. This led to struggles for power between ambiguous military leaders. Another internal threat included a separation of the church. It was now split between the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic church of the West. This began schism, or separation of the two great branches of Christianity that remains to this day.

-An external threat included the Byzantine empire faced threats from abroad. The greatest challenge came from the advance of the seljukturk who moved into the heartland of the empire and its main source of food and workers (Asia Minor). In 1071 a Turkish army disastrously defeated Byzantine forces.

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The Results of Islamic Dominance

-The rise of Islam allowed Arab groups to be unified and created a new powerful force that was strong. The Eastern Roman Empire was not strong enough to protect all of its territories. Eventually, the Islamic forces defeated the Eastern Roman Empire at Yarmuk and lost the provinces of Syria and Palestine.

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Essential Questions!

1. What motivated the Crusaders to attack palestine?

2. What was Justinian's most important contribution, and what was the result of it?