Fitness Component Poster

Javonte' Brown

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Cardiovascular Endurance

Ability of the circulatory system to supply oxygen to working muscles during exercise
Hiking is composed of two parts 1) How efficient your heart and lungs are at delivering oxygen to your body and 2) how efficient your body is at creating the energy, your muscles need in order to contract. As you participate in workouts that elevate your heart rate, aka cardio workouts, your heart will get stronger and be able to pump more of the life sustaining blood throughout your body. As you walk, row, bike, or run your body will also become more efficient at creating the energy needed for your muscles to contract.
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Muscular Strength

Amount of force that can be produced by a single contraction of a muscle
Maintaining your muscle strength with regular weight or resistance training can reduce the likelihood of some diseases and abate the signs and symptoms of others. People with diabetes, for example, experience improved blood glucose control with regular resistance training. The pull of strong muscle contractions on your bones helps prevent bone loss. For people with rheumatoid arthritis resistance training may reduce pain, fatigue and muscle weakness. Other potential benefits of maintaining muscle strength through regular exercise include better sleep, improved mood and self-confidence, and an increased metabolic rate, which aids in weight management.
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Range of movement possible at various joints
Over time, our bodies creates movements and posture habits that can lead to reduced mobility of joints and compromised body positions. Staying active and stretching regularly help prevent this loss of mobility, which ensures independence as we age. Being flexible significantly reduces the chance of experiencing occasional and chronic back pain. Improved flexibility may enhance performance in aerobic training and muscular conditioning as well as in sport. The only exceptions that it increases the likelihood of injury. When used appropriately, flexibility training allows clients to become more in tune with their body. It is a form of active relaxation that can improve both mental and physical recovery.
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Body Composition

Relative percentage of body fat compared to lean body mass (muscle, bones, water, etc.)
Body composition is not something you do, like 10 push-ups or 50 sit-ups. Body composition is something you are, but it has a lot to do with what you do. Basically, Your body is composed of two types of tissues known as fat weight and lean weight. Fat weight is the fat stored in fat cells throughout the body. Lean weight includes all other tissues, such as organs, bones, blood, skin, and muscle. Approximately half of our lean weight is muscle which, along with fat, is most likely to change during our adult years. Because the deterioration in body composition is a two-fold problem (too little muscle and too much fat), restoration of desirable body composition requires a dual solution (muscle replacement and fat reduction). Obviously, regular exercise is essential for replacing muscle tissue. However, only strength training is effective for this purpose. Endurance exercise is ideal for improving cardiovascular fitness, but it neither builds muscle nor prevents the loss of muscle during our adult years.
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Ability to move quickly from one point to another in a straight line
Speed is not just how fast someone can run (or cycle, swim etc.), but is dependent on their acceleration (how quickly they can accelerate from a stationary position), maximal speed of movement, and also speed maintenance (minimizing deceleration). Movement speed requires good strength and power, but also too much body weight and air resistance can act to slow the person down. In addition to a high proportion of fast twitch muscle fibers, it is vital to have efficient mechanics of movement to optimize the muscle power for the most economical movement technique.
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Ability of the body to change directions quickly
Agility is the ability to move your body in response to outside stimuli by means of balancing and changing your speed and direction. Your strength, reflexes and coordination affect agility, which is a necessary skill for all performance sports and most physical activities. There are exercises you can do to become more agile — including dancing, aerobics and exercise drills — which are beneficial to you whether you're an athlete or not.
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Ability to maintain an upright posture while still moving
Having good balance is important for many activities we do every day, such as walking and going up and down the stairs. Exercises that improve balance can help prevent falls, a common problem in older adults and stroke patients. They can also benefit those who are obese since weight is not always carried or distributed evenly throughout the body. A loss of balance can occur when standing or moving suddenly. Often we are not fully aware that we may have weak balance until we try balance exercises.
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Integration with hand / foot movement with the input of the senses

Coordination training, for example, is introduced during the pre-adolescent ages while nervous system plasticity is high and movement habits have not yet been ingrained as permanent. The scope of coordination training changes during the adolescent ages, during which physical growth alters the young athlete’s previously mastered movement habits. At this time, refinement of movement should take precedent over learning new movement-based skills. One point to consider about coordination is that genetic pre-disposition plays a significant role. Less coordinated children will likely never exhibit the tendencies of naturally coordinated children regardless of training. That is not to say that improvements cannot be made, however; quite the opposite.

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Reaction Time

Time it takes to react and move once you realize the need to move

Reaction time itself is an inherent ability, but overall response time can be improved by practice. Coach and athletes need to analyse the type of skill and the requirements of their sport and decide where overall response gains can be made. Consider the following:

1. Detecting the cue - in a sprint start, focusing on the starter's voice and the sound of the gun and separating this from background crowd noise and negative thoughts

2. Detecting relevant cues - a goalkeeper learning to analyse body language at penalties

3. Decision making - working on set pieces and game situations

4. Change in attention focus - being able to switch quickly from concentration on the opponent to concentration on the field of play in invasion games

5. Controlling anxiety - which slows reaction times by adding conflicting information

6. Creating optimum levels of motivation - 'psyching up'

7. Warm up - to ensure the sense organs and nervous system are ready to transmit information and the muscles to act upon it

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Ability to do strength work at an explosive pace

One’s ability to react and generate force quickly is crucial to overall function and safety during movement. Reactive/power training can enhance one’s ability to dynamically stabilize, reduce and produce forces at speeds that are functionally applicable to the tasks at hand. Our nervous system will only recruit muscles at speeds it has been trained to. If we do not train the nervous system to recruit muscles quickly, when met with a demand that requires one to react quickly, the nervous system will not be able to respond appropriately. For example, if two basketball players of the same height are going up for a jump ball, the one who can react and generate force the fastest will win the jump ball. It is important to note, that reactive/power training should only be incorporated into an individual’s exercise program once they have obtained proper flexibility, core strength and balance capabilities.