christian livingston


The idea people, men and women equally, have knowledge about themselves and the world around them that "transcends" or goes beyond what they can see, hear, taste, touch or feel.

Biggest idea to come out of the Utopian Movement.

that you could create a perfect society by buliding experimental communities, most of them had a short lifespan,and the did the experiments outside the rest of society, yet they all wanted a deep desire of perfection

Brook Farm community.

This was a utopian experiment in cummunial living the the United states in the 1800s. It was founded by George Ripley and his wife Sophia Ripley at the ellis farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts in 1841, this was inspired by the idea of Trancendentalism.
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Edgar Allen

Transcendental is a famous american movement based on the reality of god, the universe and the self.However its reaction formed the "anti-transcendental" or dark romanticism, which the distructiveness of the human race. Mr.poe restored the vague imagination of unreal sources.Although he did not publically mention Ralph Waldo Emerson(*the founder of Transcendentalism*)but he attacked his ideas and Transcendentalism in general. Edgar Allen Poe meant to stop the idea transcendentalism,in the United States in particular.

Ralph Waldo Emerson

American essayist, lecturer, and poet, who led the transcendentalism movement of the mid-19th century. He was seen as a champion and a critic of the countervailing pressures of society, and he disseminated his thoughts through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public speachees across the United States.Emerson gradually moved away from the religious and social beliefs of his contemporaries and expressing the philosophy of Transcendentalism in his 1836 essay called nature. Following this work, he gave a speech called the american scholar in 1837, considered to be America's Intellectual Declaration of Independence. He is also known as a mentor and friend to Henry David Thoreau.

Henry D. Thoreau

A leading transcendentalist,Thoreau is best known for his book walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay resistence to civil government,an argument for disobedience to an unjust state. Among his lasting contributions are his writings on history and philosophy, where he anticipated the methods and findings of ecology and environmental history, He was also deeply interested in the idea of survival in the face of hostile elements, historical change, and natural decay,at the same time he advocated abandoning waste and illusion in order to discover life's true essential needs.Thoreau's philosophy of civil disobedience later influenced the political thoughts and actions of such notable figures as Leo Tolstoy, Mohandas gandhi, and Martin Luther King,Jr.