Reformations of the 19th Century
Mental Health/Prison Reform
During the early part of this period of humanitarian reform, the use of moral management are wide-ranging method of treatment that focused on a patient's of social, individual, and occupational needs became relatively widespread. This approach, which stemmed largely from the work of Pinel and Tuke, began in Europe during the late eighteenth century and in America during the early nineteenth century. Rees (1957) described the approach this way:
The insane came to be regarded as normal people who had lost their reason as a result of having been exposed to severe psychological and social stress. These stresses were called the moral causes of insanity and moral treatment aimed at relieving the patient by friendly association, discussion of his difficulties and the daily pursuit of purposeful activity; in other words social therapy, individual therapy, and occupational therapy.